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Recent advances in neurobiology and clinical medicine have established that the fetus and newborn may experience acute, established, and chronic pain. They respond to such noxious stimuli by a series of complex biochemical, physiologic, and behavioral alterations. Studies have concluded that controlling pain experience is beneficial with respect to(More)
Placement of IV catheters is a painful and stressful procedure for children. J-Tip is a needle-less Food and Drug Administration approved injection system that can be used for delivery of local anesthetic before IV cannulation. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of J-Tip versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) to facilitate IV(More)
We compared the efficacy, duration, and side effects of preservative-free morphine injected into the caudal space in children, with caudal bupivacaine and with intravenous morphine administration for relief of postoperative pain. Forty-six children, ages 1-16 yr, were randomly assigned to receive intravenous morphine (control group), caudal bupivacaine(More)
We evaluated the respiratory effects of intravenous morphine infusions in 30 patients (2 to 570 days old, mean 155 days) after cardiac surgery. PaCO2 during spontaneous breathing and CO2 response curves during rebreathing were obtained on morphine infusions at drug steady state and during drug washout. Steady state morphine serum levels > 20 ng/mL resulted(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine how early in childhood the clearance of morphine sulfate reaches that in adults. DESIGN Patient series. SETTING Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Wash. PARTICIPANTS Forty-nine children aged 1 day to 2.5 years with normal renal and hepatic function. All children were receiving a constant rate intravenous infusion(More)
The pharmacokinetics of morphine in ten infants less than or equal to 10 weeks of age who were receiving morphine infusions were determined. Infants 1-4 days of age (newborns) showed longer elimination half-lives than the older infants (6.8 vs. 3.9 h). Clearance in the newborns is less than one-half that found in older infants (6.3 vs. 23.8 ml X min-1 X(More)
Amrinone was used as the sole vasoactive medication in 9 of 14 children (aged 5 months to 8.25 years) given the drug following open repair of congenital cardiac lesions. Four children received a concomitant dopamine infusion and one infant had the infusion stopped after 5 hours for low mean arterial pressure (49 mmHg). In the 10 children receiving only(More)
OBJECTIVES/AIMS   The aim of this retrospective review was to determine the feasibility, safety, and potential therapeutic effects of acupuncture in an inpatient infant population and to obtain data that would support the design of a randomized, controlled trial of acupuncture in infants. BACKGROUND   Hospitalized infants are often exposed to sedative and(More)
Fourteen children with congenital heart disease and associated pulmonary hypertension (preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) 48 mm Hg +/- 1 SEM were examined to determine the effect of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and pH on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics after surgical repair. Baseline measurements were obtained with(More)
A retrospective analysis has been performed of children who have undergone cardiac operations during the past 6 years to determine the clinical presentation and management of acute hepatic failure (AHF) in the postoperative period. Eleven patients had a clinical picture of AHF with jaundice, elevation of the levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(More)