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Recently, a method for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the brain has been developed. Thus, it is possible to explore neurochemical and behavioral effects of TMS in rats. Repeated TMS (9 days) reduced beta-adrenergic receptor binding in cortex, as does electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and other antidepressant treatments. Thus TMS appears to be a(More)
Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 and delayed cognitive deficits. Estrogen treatment ameliorates hippocampal injury associated with global ischemia. Although much is known about the impact of estrogen on neuronal survival, relatively little is known about its impact on functional outcome assessed(More)
The importance of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy in affording protection against the selective and delayed neuronal death associated with cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery in women remains controversial. Here we report that exogenous estrogen at levels that are physiological for hormone replacement in postmenopausal women affords protection(More)
The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only(More)
Estradiol at physiological concentrations intervenes in apoptotic death cascades and ameliorates neuronal death in experimental models of focal and global ischemia. The cellular targets that mediate estradiol protection of hippocampal neurons in global ischemia are, however, unclear. The present study examined the hypothesis that estradiol protects(More)
The importance of hormone therapy in affording protection against the sequelae of global ischemia in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Global ischemia arising during cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery causes highly selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Exogenous estradiol ameliorates global ischemia-induced neuronal death and(More)
The effect of systemically administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, on the potassium-evoked release of dopamine (DA) was examined in the neostriatum of the chloral hydrate anesthetized rat. Both in vivo electrochemical and in vivo microdialysis techniques were employed. A low dose of THC (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)(More)
Hypothalamic slices prepared from female rats in various hormonal conditions were incubated in vitro in the presence or absence of 10 microM norepinephrine (NE), and cyclic AMP content was measured. Slices from animals in late diestrus or with exogenous estrogen treatment responded to NE with marked elevations of cyclic AMP in all but the posterior(More)
Hypothalamic circuits utilizing the monoamine neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) may be key elements upon which the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) act to regulate female reproductive behavior. Recent studies have focused on the modulation of hypothalamic NE release by E2 and P treatments that facilitate sexual behavior. Brain(More)
MK-801 and dextrorphan, selective non-competitive antagonists at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, were used to evaluate the effect of NMDA receptor blockade on sexual and motor behaviors in female rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) for 48 or 72 h followed by progesterone (P) 3.5-4 h before testing the animals for(More)