Anne M. Etgen

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The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only(More)
Leptin has pleiotropic effects on glucose homeostasis and feeding behavior. Here, we validate the use of a cell-permeable phosphopeptide that blocks STAT3 activation in vivo. The combination of this biochemical approach with stereotaxic surgical techniques allowed us to pinpoint the contribution of hypothalamic STAT3 to the acute effects of leptin on food(More)
The importance of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy in affording protection against the selective and delayed neuronal death associated with cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery in women remains controversial. Here we report that exogenous estrogen at levels that are physiological for hormone replacement in postmenopausal women affords protection(More)
The potential neuroprotective role of sex hormones in chronic neurodegenerative disorders and acute brain ischemia following cardiac arrest and stroke is of a great therapeutic interest. Long-term pretreatment with estradiol and other estrogens affords robust neuroprotection in male and female rodents subjected to focal and global ischemia. However, the(More)
Females exposed to morphine sulfate in utero (5-10 mg/kg twice a day on days 11-18 of gestation) displayed precocious vaginal opening and had increased body weight from the 8th week after weaning. In addition, there was a substantial inhibition in adult feminine sexual behavior. Male rats that received either morphine or saline prenatally did not show any(More)
The importance of hormone therapy in affording protection against the sequelae of global ischemia in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Global ischemia arising during cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery causes highly selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Exogenous estradiol ameliorates global ischemia-induced neuronal death and(More)
Estradiol (E(2)) regulates female reproductive behavior (lordosis) by acting on estrogen-sensitive neurons. We recently showed that E(2) facilitation of lordosis behavior requires concurrent activation of brain IGF-I receptors. The present study confirmed this finding and sought to identify the downstream signaling pathways involved in estrogen/IGF-I(More)
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) is thought to constitute an essential neural substrate for hormonal induction of female sexual behavior. In previous work, implants of dilute (0.4%) estradiol (E2) have been found to prime progesterone-facilitated female sexual behavior in rats only when they are within or very close to the VMN. In other(More)
Global ischemia arising during cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery causes highly selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Exogenous estradiol ameliorates global ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairment in male and female rodents. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a single acute injection of estradiol administered after the(More)