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Leptin has pleiotropic effects on glucose homeostasis and feeding behavior. Here, we validate the use of a cell-permeable phosphopeptide that blocks STAT3 activation in vivo. The combination of this biochemical approach with stereotaxic surgical techniques allowed us to pinpoint the contribution of hypothalamic STAT3 to the acute effects of leptin on food(More)
The importance of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy in affording protection against the selective and delayed neuronal death associated with cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery in women remains controversial. Here we report that exogenous estrogen at levels that are physiological for hormone replacement in postmenopausal women affords protection(More)
The importance of hormone therapy in affording protection against the sequelae of global ischemia in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Global ischemia arising during cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery causes highly selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Exogenous estradiol ameliorates global ischemia-induced neuronal death and(More)
Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 and delayed cognitive deficits. Estrogen treatment ameliorates hippocampal injury associated with global ischemia. Although much is known about the impact of estrogen on neuronal survival, relatively little is known about its impact on functional outcome assessed(More)
Recently, a method for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the brain has been developed. Thus, it is possible to explore neurochemical and behavioral effects of TMS in rats. Repeated TMS (9 days) reduced beta-adrenergic receptor binding in cortex, as does electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and other antidepressant treatments. Thus TMS appears to be a(More)
MK-801 and dextrorphan, selective non-competitive antagonists at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, were used to evaluate the effect of NMDA receptor blockade on sexual and motor behaviors in female rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) for 48 or 72 h followed by progesterone (P) 3.5-4 h before testing the animals for(More)
The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only(More)
Estradiol at physiological concentrations intervenes in apoptotic death cascades and ameliorates neuronal death in experimental models of focal and global ischemia. The cellular targets that mediate estradiol protection of hippocampal neurons in global ischemia are, however, unclear. The present study examined the hypothesis that estradiol protects(More)
These experiments examined the influence of estradiol and progesterone given in vivo on norepinephrine (NE) regulation of cAMP synthesis in hypothalamic and preoptic area slices in vitro. Administration of progesterone to estrogen-primed female rats attenuated NE-induced slice cAMP accumulation. This hormone-dependent reduction in NE-stimulated cAMP(More)
Glutamate (Glu) and its receptors are involved in the maturation and maintenance of the neural mechanisms governing the preovulatory LH surge of young, reproductive-aged rodents and nonhuman primates. Little is known about the role of Glu in the delayed onset and reduced peak amplitude of the LH surge that characterizes female rodents during early(More)