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The questionnaire can be a cost-effective research tool for use in data collection. A number of sequential steps should be followed in planning and designing questionnaires. Questionnaires should be sent to a pilot sample to check reliability and validity before going to the research sample.
After a defibrillation attempt started a fire in an oxygen-enriched intensive care unit environment, seven popular electrode gels were tested for spark-generating properties by repeated 360-J electrical discharges into a 50-omega test load. Gels with low initial impedance (7 +/- 1 omega) allowed a high current flow (51 +/- 1 A), maintained a cool… (More)
Optimization of blood flow and blood pressure is critical for a positive outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The use of models can facilitate the analysis of different methods of performing CPR. Programming with SPICE software, the authors modified a hardware model electrically equivalent to the human cardiovascular system into a software model… (More)
development of ambient and pervasive devices and systems is gathering momentum— recent examples include the Whereabouts Clock  and digital jewelry . These types of technologies provide new contexts for communication between users. The eSense project  is developing a systems approach for large-scale deployment of ambient technologies, based on the… (More)
Gastroscopy-associated electrical shock occurred in two cases, with one death. An ACMI Wappler transformer-powered Hirschowitz flexible fiber-gastroscope was used. Ideally, endoscopes should not contain electrically conductive material or metals that might corrode. Electrical systems used at endoscopy should conform to the existing standards for… (More)
The use of helicopters for on-scene emergency response has become an important part of the EMS system. In fact, air transport of advanced-level personnel to the scene of accidents and the rapid transport of patients to acute-care facilities frequently have been lifesaving.
The system, as built, has been able to meet all of the original design criteria. In the original rudimentary tests we were sufficiently pleased with the performance to pursue the next step, scheduling trials in the real, small-agency, rural EMS environment. The Federal Communications Commission licensing changes necessary to add the digital data… (More)
Qualitative research is a way of describing an event in its context and is useful for investigating complex, new or relatively unexplored areas. A central tenet of the qualitative approach is that researchers cannot be truly neutral or detached from data generation and analysis. Qualitative research values the experience of the research participant and can… (More)
Quantitative research is an objective process used to obtain numerical data. The form of quantitative research used is influenced by current knowledge of the problem. Careful planning in the design stage is essential when undertaking quantitative research.
SOCIETY continues. Suppliers of devices, services, and infrastructure regularly point to the high levels of penetration of, say, mobile phones or broadband in countries around the world. While this is indeed true in many societies, the levels of penetration are less extensive in others where the reality remains stubbornly less than the hype. Many people… (More)