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The purpose of this study was to establish if there are gender differences in muscle architecture in relaxed human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of normal, live subjects. Ultrasonography was used to measure fiber bundle length, muscle thickness, and angles of pennation in a total of ten predetermined sites in the medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius(More)
The supraspinatus is most frequently involved in shoulder pathology. However, the musculotendinous architecture of the supraspinatus has not been well documented. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the detailed three-dimensional architecture of the supraspinatus throughout its volume. Ten male formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean(More)
Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and(More)
The description of a Neanderthal hyoid from Kebara Cave (Israel) in 1989 fuelled scientific debate on the evolution of speech and complex language. Gross anatomy of the Kebara 2 hyoid differs little from that of modern humans. However, whether Homo neanderthalensis could use speech or complex language remains controversial. Similarity in overall shape does(More)
Several new markers have shown a capacity to predict the clinicopathological behavior of pituitary neoplasms; these markers have shown potential to correlate with tumor subtype and size and patient age and sex. These various markers are involved in a host of cellular functions, including cell-cycle progression, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell adhesion,(More)
Twenty-two Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS) muscles from 18 cadavers were dissected to find the "Optimal Injection Site" (OIS) for botulinum toxin injections to individual bellies of FDS. Coordinates are given as a percentage of the distance along a landmarking line from the medial epicondyle to the pisiform and in millimetres (mm) lateral to it. The(More)
The purpose of this study was to visualize and document the architecture of the human soleus muscle throughout its entire volume. The architecture was visualized by creating a three-dimensional (3D) manipulatable computer model of an entire cadaveric soleus, in situ, using B-spline solid to display muscle fiber bundles that had been serially dissected,(More)
KI-67, A MARKER of cellular proliferation, has been studied extensively in pituitary neoplasia. It is of relevance to various clinicopathological parameters, including tumor subtype, size, invasiveness, and recurrence, as well as patient age and sex. Generally, pituitary tumors behaving aggressively have increased Ki-67 labeling indices. Nonetheless, there(More)
We investigate <i>implanted user interfaces</i> that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices <i>always</i> stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces <i>available at all times</i>. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to(More)
Lumbar multifidus (LMT) is a key muscle, which provides stability to the lumbar spine, and has been shown to have altered neuromuscular recruitment following acute episodes of low back pain. Architectural parameters are important determinants of function, but have not been well documented for LMT. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to model and(More)