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Anatomically-based models for physical and geometric reconstruction of humans and other animals The relationship between the design elements of form and function is fundamental in producing new insights and understanding of the objects we encounter every day. Of particular interest is the study of human and animal anatomy, and how the elegance of shape and(More)
The supraspinatus is most frequently involved in shoulder pathology. However, the musculotendinous architecture of the supraspinatus has not been well documented. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the detailed three-dimensional architecture of the supraspinatus throughout its volume. Ten male formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean(More)
The description of a Neanderthal hyoid from Kebara Cave (Israel) in 1989 fuelled scientific debate on the evolution of speech and complex language. Gross anatomy of the Kebara 2 hyoid differs little from that of modern humans. However, whether Homo neanderthalensis could use speech or complex language remains controversial. Similarity in overall shape does(More)
Twenty-two Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS) muscles from 18 cadavers were dissected to find the "Optimal Injection Site" (OIS) for botulinum toxin injections to individual bellies of FDS. Coordinates are given as a percentage of the distance along a landmarking line from the medial epicondyle to the pisiform and in millimetres (mm) lateral to it. The(More)
The purpose of this study was to visualize and document the architecture of the human soleus muscle throughout its entire volume. The architecture was visualized by creating a three-dimensional (3D) manipulatable computer model of an entire cadaveric soleus, in situ, using B-spline solid to display muscle fiber bundles that had been serially dissected,(More)
We investigate <i>implanted user interfaces</i> that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices <i>always</i> stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces <i>available at all times</i>. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to(More)
The purpose of this study was to establish if there are gender differences in muscle architecture in relaxed human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of normal, live subjects. Ultrasonography was used to measure fiber bundle length, muscle thickness, and angles of pennation in a total of ten predetermined sites in the medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius(More)
Computational musculoskeletal (MSK) models - 3D graphics-based models that accurately simulate the anatomical architecture and/or the biomechanical behaviour of organ systems consisting of skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and bones - are valued biomedical tools, with applications ranging from pathological diagnosis to surgical planning.(More)
Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and(More)
Understanding muscle architecture is crucial to determining the mechanical function of muscle during body movements, because architectural parameters directly correspond to muscle performance. Accurate parameters are thus essential for reliable simulation. Human cadaveric muscle specimen data provides the anatomical detail needed for in-depth understanding(More)