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The purpose of this study was to establish if there are gender differences in muscle architecture in relaxed human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of normal, live subjects. Ultrasonography was used to measure fiber bundle length, muscle thickness, and angles of pennation in a total of ten predetermined sites in the medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius(More)
OBJECT Meningiomas of the lower clivus and foramen magnum are among the most challenging of all neurosurgical lesions. Debate continues regarding the most appropriate approach to this eloquent anatomical region. This anatomical study was undertaken to measure and compare the area of surgical exposures of the lower clivus achieved using the retrosigmoid and(More)
The supraspinatus is most frequently involved in shoulder pathology. However, the musculotendinous architecture of the supraspinatus has not been well documented. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the detailed three-dimensional architecture of the supraspinatus throughout its volume. Ten male formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean(More)
Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and(More)
A thorough understanding of the normal structural anatomy of the pectoralis major (PM) is of paramount importance in the planning of PM tendon transfers or repairs following traumatic PM tears. However, there is little consensus regarding the complex musculotendinous architecture of the PM in the anatomic or surgical literature. The purpose of this study is(More)
The description of a Neanderthal hyoid from Kebara Cave (Israel) in 1989 fuelled scientific debate on the evolution of speech and complex language. Gross anatomy of the Kebara 2 hyoid differs little from that of modern humans. However, whether Homo neanderthalensis could use speech or complex language remains controversial. Similarity in overall shape does(More)
The evaluation and proposed relevance of acetabular labral tears has rapidly evolved over the last decade due to the recognition of femoroacetabular impingement, an increase in the number of surgical options, and improved imaging of the hip with MR arthrography and 3-T MR protocols. The acetabular labrum, stabilizing the hip joint, provides a seal,(More)
The purpose of this study was to document and compare the architectural parameters (fibre bundle length, angle of pennation) of human skeletal muscle in cadaveric specimens and live subjects. The medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and posterior (PS) and anterior (AS) soleus were examined bilaterally in 5 cadavers (mean age 72.6, range 65-83 y) and(More)
Several new markers have shown a capacity to predict the clinicopathological behavior of pituitary neoplasms; these markers have shown potential to correlate with tumor subtype and size and patient age and sex. These various markers are involved in a host of cellular functions, including cell-cycle progression, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell adhesion,(More)
KI-67, A MARKER of cellular proliferation, has been studied extensively in pituitary neoplasia. It is of relevance to various clinicopathological parameters, including tumor subtype, size, invasiveness, and recurrence, as well as patient age and sex. Generally, pituitary tumors behaving aggressively have increased Ki-67 labeling indices. Nonetheless, there(More)