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BACKGROUND Several indicators suggest that food allergy in infants is common and possibly increasing. Few studies have used oral food challenge to measure this phenomenon at the population level. OBJECTIVE To measure the prevalence of common IgE-mediated childhood food allergies in a population-based sample of 12-month-old infants by using predetermined(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether past high sun exposure is associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis. DESIGN Population based case-control study. SETTING Tasmania, latitudes 41-3 degrees S. PARTICIPANTS 136 cases with multiple sclerosis and 272 controls randomly drawn from the community and matched on sex and year of birth. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake can result in vitamin D insufficiency. However, limited data are available on actual vitamin D status and predictors in healthy individuals in different regions and by season. METHODS We compared vitamin D status [25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D] in people < 60 years of age using data from(More)
BACKGROUND Monthly variation in multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses has been found. The relationship between seasonal environmental factors, infections, serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] and MS relapses is undetermined. METHODS We prospectively followed a population-based cohort of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients in Southern Tasmania for a mean 2.3 years(More)
Like other autoimmune diseases, including adult RA, risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is thought to be determined by a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although some predisposing JIA genes are now being identified, research aimed at identifying environmental influences lags behind most other autoimmune(More)
The aim of this study was to conduct an ecological analysis of the extent to which ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels might explain the regional variation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Australia. MS prevalence data for six Australian regions were compared with UVR levels of the largest city in each region, with some other climatic variables and with the(More)
Our aim was to examine the contribution of an infant's indoor environment to childhood asthma using prospective data. We conducted a cross-sectional asthma survey in 1995 on 92% (6,378/6,911) of 7-year-olds in Tasmania, Australia. We linked these data with data collected in 1988 as part of the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey, which was designed to(More)
Past sun exposure is linked to a wide range of disease outcomes but is difficult to measure accurately. Silicone skin casts measure skin damage, but some studies show that age rather than sun exposure is the most important determinant of cast score. We examined skin damage scores from silicone casts of the back of the hand in a large adult sample (n = 534)(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the thermal environment of infants who died of the sudden infant death syndrome with that of age matched control infants. DESIGN Case-control study. Infants who died were matched with two controls, one for age and one for age and birth weight. Thermal measurements were conducted at the death scene for cases and at the scene of last(More)
We review the evidence indicating a possible beneficial role for UVR on three Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to recent developments in photoimmunology. Recent work suggests that UVR exposure may be one factor that can attenuate the autoimmune activity leading to these three diseases(More)