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Recovery from neuronal activation requires rapid clearance of potassium ions (K+) and restoration of osmotic equilibrium. The predominant water channel protein in brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is concentrated in the astrocyte end-feet membranes adjacent to blood vessels in neocortex and cerebellum by association with alpha-syntrophin protein. Although AQP4 has(More)
The postsynaptic actions of acetylcholine, adenosine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, histamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin were analyzed in human cortical pyramidal cells maintained in vitro. The actions of these six putative neurotransmitters converged onto three distinct potassium currents. Application of acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine, or(More)
1. In rat hippocampal pyramidal cells in vitro, a brief train of action potentials elicited by direct depolarizing current pulses injected through an intracellular recording electrode is followed by a medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) and a longer, slow AHP. We studied the mAHP with the use of current-clamp techniques in the presence of(More)
The primate temporal cortex has been demonstrated to play an important role in visual memory and pattern recognition. It is of particular interest to investigate whether activity-dependent modification of synaptic efficacy, a presumptive mechanism for learning and memory, is present in this cortical region. Here we address this issue by examining the(More)
PURPOSE This study is a retrospective analysis of the pathology of the hippocampus from patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. We attempted to relate neuronal density, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiologic data, and surgical outcome. METHODS Immunostaining patterns for neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, substance P, and dynorphin(More)
DCX-immunoreactive (DCX+) cells occur in the piriform cortex in adult mice and rats, but also in the neocortex in adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Here we describe these cells in adult domestic cats and primates. In cats and rhesus monkeys, DCX+ cells existed across the allo- and neocortex, with an overall ventrodorsal high to low gradient at a given frontal(More)
Alterations in synaptic inhibition are associated with epileptiform activity in several acute animal models; however, it is not clear if there are changes in inhibition in chronically epileptic tissue. We have used intracellular recordings from granule cells of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy to determine whether synaptic inhibition is compromised. Two(More)
The CA2 region of the hippocampus is more resistant to the principal cell loss seen in CA1 and CA3 in both animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy and in medial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS), a common neuropathological finding in human temporal lobe epilepsy. There is extensive synaptic reorganization in the MTS hippocampi that is not seen in the hippocampi(More)
Activation of the zygotic genome is a prerequisite for the transition from maternal to zygotic control of development. The onset of zygotic transcription has been well studied in somatic cells, but evidence suggests that it is controlled differently in the germline. In Drosophila, zygotic transcription in the soma has been detected as early as one hour(More)
Approximately one-third of all patients with epilepsy continue to suffer from seizures even after appropriate treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Medically refractory epilepsies are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and more efficacious therapies against these disorders are clearly needed. However, the discovery of better therapies has(More)