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There is growing preclinical evidence for the involvement of glutamate in the behavioral actions of nicotine. The aim of this study, was to investigate the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the cognitive and subjective effects of smoking in humans. Sixty regular smokers took part in this double-blind placebo controlled study, that(More)
Systemic injections of alcohol have previously been reported to 'prime' or to reinstate self-administration of alcohol in rats, and it has been suggested that the priming effects of drugs are related to their stimulus properties. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of lorazepam, which cross-generalizes with alcohol in animal(More)
This study investigated pulmonary and autonomic reactions to active and passive behavioral laboratory tasks among asthmatic subjects. It also examined the relationship between airway irritability, as measured by the methacholine challenge test (MCT), and autonomic activity and reactivity to these tasks. Fifty-one asthmatic and 37 nonasthmatic subjects were(More)
RATIONALE The acquisition of a caffeine conditioned flavour preference depends on the caffeine deprivation status of subjects during conditioning. It is not known if the expression of an established flavour preference is also state-dependent. OBJECTIVES To determine if the expression of a flavour preference conditioned by caffeine is dependent on the(More)
Previous research has shown that moderate caffeine users develop a liking for the flavour of a novel caffeinated drink only if they experience this drink in a caffeine-deprived state. This study tested how sensitive these conditioned-flavour preferences are to subsequent changes in deprivation state and the continued presence or absence of caffeine.(More)
Pre-frontal cortical (PFC) dysfunction has been put forward as the basis for development and maintenance of addiction. To explore this relationship, the present study investigated the effects of smoking on PFC-mediated cognitive flexibility and subjective states in low- (LD) and high-dependent (HD) smokers. Twenty-four LD and 24 HD smokers (Fagerström(More)
This review presents some of the work that has been carried out to investigate the behavioural effects of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-receptor antagonists in animal models of substance abuse. Many of the studies have been conducted in light of current ideas that emphasise the analogous role of glutamatergic mechanisms in(More)
Gender differences in the discriminative stimulus properties of drugs of abuse have sometimes been reported, although we have previously found no differences in subjective or discriminative responses in human subjects acquiring an alcohol discrimination. The aim of the present work was to determine if there were gender differences in the effects of(More)
Male hooded Lister rats were trained using a sucrose-fading technique, to perform an operant lever press response to obtain ethanol. Initial training, using an FR4 schedule in which each reinforcement required four lever presses, included varying the concentration of ethanol in the liquid reinforcer. Changes in reinforcer concentration between 7 and 15%(More)
RATIONALE Although well characterised in animals, relatively little is known about alcohol discriminative stimulus effects in humans. OBJECTIVE The study was carried out to investigate the correspondence of subjective effects and the discriminative response during the acquisition of a low dose alcohol discrimination in humans. METHODS Healthy volunteers(More)