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Systemic injections of alcohol have previously been reported to 'prime' or to reinstate self-administration of alcohol in rats, and it has been suggested that the priming effects of drugs are related to their stimulus properties. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of lorazepam, which cross-generalizes with alcohol in animal(More)
Pre-frontal cortical (PFC) dysfunction has been put forward as the basis for development and maintenance of addiction. To explore this relationship, the present study investigated the effects of smoking on PFC-mediated cognitive flexibility and subjective states in low- (LD) and high-dependent (HD) smokers. Twenty-four LD and 24 HD smokers (Fagerström(More)
This review presents some of the work that has been carried out to investigate the behavioural effects of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-receptor antagonists in animal models of substance abuse. Many of the studies have been conducted in light of current ideas that emphasise the analogous role of glutamatergic mechanisms in(More)
Gender differences in the discriminative stimulus properties of drugs of abuse have sometimes been reported, although we have previously found no differences in subjective or discriminative responses in human subjects acquiring an alcohol discrimination. The aim of the present work was to determine if there were gender differences in the effects of(More)
RATIONALE Although well characterised in animals, relatively little is known about alcohol discriminative stimulus effects in humans. OBJECTIVE The study was carried out to investigate the correspondence of subjective effects and the discriminative response during the acquisition of a low dose alcohol discrimination in humans. METHODS Healthy volunteers(More)
RATIONALE Our previous study using memantine in smokers suggests that there may be a differential role for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the subjective and cognitive effects of smoking. OBJECTIVES This study was designed to investigate if D-cycloserine (DCS) would modulate the subjective and cognitive effects of limited smoking. METHODS(More)
The relationship between work rate (W) and time to exhaustion (t) during intense exercise is commonly described by either a hyperbolic function (NLin), t= W'/(W-Wcp), or by its linear equivalent (LinW) Wlim=W' + Wcp(t). The parameter Wcp (critical power) has been described as an inherent characteristic of the aerobic energy system, while W' has been shown(More)
RATIONALE The alcohol discriminative stimulus has been extensively studied in animals and demonstrated to be pharmacologically complex. In contrast, however, the alcohol stimulus has been less frequently studied in humans. OBJECTIVES The aim of the experiments reported here was to characterise pharmacologically an alcohol discriminative stimulus in social(More)
INTRODUCTION Impaired monitoring of errors and conflict (performance monitoring; PM) is well documented in substance dependence (SD) including nicotine dependence and may contribute to continued drug use. Contemporary models of PM and complementary behavioural evidence suggest that PM works by integrating recent reinforcement history rather than evaluating(More)
Varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) aids smoking cessation by reducing craving. Successful quitting may be associated with greater inhibitory control but the effectiveness of varenicline in this regard is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of varenicline on aspects of inhibitory control in smokers. A(More)