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We report the isolation of a novel bacterium, strain C1(T), from the midgut of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, one of the vector insects responsible for transmission of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan African countries. Strain C1(T) is a motile, facultatively anaerobic, rod-like bacterium (0.8-1.0 microm in(More)
This paper reports the first evidence of the presence of bacteria, other than the three previously described as symbionts, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Wolbachia, and Sodalis glossinidius, in the midgut of Glossina palpalis palpalis, the tsetse fly, a vector of the chronic form of human African trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan African countries. Based on the(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis is a lethal disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The proteins secreted by T. brucei inhibit the maturation of dendritic cells and their ability to induce lymphocytic allogenic responses. To better understand the pathogenic process, we combined different approaches to characterize these secreted(More)
Tsetse flies transmit African trypanosomes, responsible for sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. This disease affects many people with considerable impact on public health and economy in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas trypanosomes' resistance to drugs is rising. The symbiont Sodalis glossinidius is considered to play a role in the ability of the(More)
Sodalis glossinidius is an endosymbiont of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina morsitans morsitans, the vectors of Trypanosoma congolense. The presence of the symbiont was investigated by PCR in Trypanosoma congolense savannah type-infected and noninfected midguts of both fly species, and into the probosces of flies displaying either mature or(More)
Trypanosoma secretome was shown to be involved in parasite virulence and is suspected of interfering in parasite life-cycle steps such as establishment in the Glossina midgut, metacyclogenesis. Therefore, we attempted to identify the proteins secreted by procyclic strains of T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei brucei, responsible for human and animal(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by trypanosomes of the species Trypanosoma brucei and belongs to the neglected tropical diseases. Presently, WHO has listed 36 countries as being endemic for sleeping sickness. No vaccine is available, and disease treatment is difficult and has life-threatening side effects. Therefore, there is a crucial need to(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a neglected vector-borne parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei sensu lato. Within this complex species, T. b. gambiense is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness in Western and Central Africa, whereas T. b. rhodesiense causes the acute form of the disease(More)
Epidemiological surveys were conducted in two historical human African trypanosomiasis foci in South Cameroon, Bipindi and Campo. In each focus, three sampling areas were defined. In Bipindi, only Glossina palpalis was identified, whereas four species were identified in Campo, G. palpalis being highly predominant (93%). For further analyses, 75 flies were(More)