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PURPOSE We compared an iontophoresis riboflavin delivery technique for transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking (I-CXL) with a conventional CXL (C-CXL). METHODS We designed three experimental sets using 152 New Zealand rabbits to study riboflavin application by iontophoresis using charged riboflavin solution (Ricrolin+) with a 1-mA current for 5(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress (OS), through excessive and/or chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a mediator of diabetes-related damages in various tissues including pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we have evaluated islet OS status and beta-cell response to ROS using the GK/Par rat as a model of type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Localization(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin plays an important role in the hypothalamic control of energy balance, especially by reducing food intake. Emerging data point to a pivotal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in energy homeostasis regulation, but their involvement in the anorexigenic effect of insulin is unknown. Furthermore, ROS signal derived from NADPH oxidase(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent data demonstrated that glucose sensing in different tissues is initiated by an intracellular redox signaling pathway in physiological conditions. However, the relevance of such a mechanism in metabolic disease is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine whether brain glucose hypersensitivity present in obese Zücker rats is(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation followed by fibrosis is a component of islet dysfunction in both rodent and human type 2 diabetes. Because islet inflammation may originate from endothelial cells, we assessed the expression of selected genes involved in endothelial cell activation in islets from a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. We(More)
We have cloned and sequenced the Lactobacillus casei hprK gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme HPr kinase/P-Ser-HPr phosphatase (HprK/P). Purified recombinant L. casei HprK/P catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of HPr, a phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system at the regulatory Ser-46 as well as the(More)
Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and(More)
Mitochondria form a dynamic network within the cell as a result of balanced fusion and fission. Despite the established role of mitofusins (MFN1 and MFN2) in mitochondrial fusion, only MFN2 has been associated with metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, which suggests that MFN2 is needed to maintain mitochondrial energy metabolism. The molecular basis(More)
Bacteria possess many kinases that catalyze phosphorylation of proteins on diverse amino acids including arginine, cysteine, histidine, aspartate, serine, threonine, and tyrosine. These protein kinases regulate different physiological processes in response to environmental modifications. For example, in response to nutritional stresses, the Gram-positive(More)