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In gram-positive bacteria, HPr, a phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), is phosphorylated by an ATP-dependent, metabolite-activated protein kinase on seryl residue 46. In a Bacillus subtilis mutant strain in which Ser-46 of HPr was replaced with a nonphosphorylatable alanyl residue (ptsH1 mutation),(More)
Catabolite repression of various Bacillus subtilis catabolic operons which carry a cis-acting catabolite-responsive element (CRE), such as the gnt operon, is mediated by CcpA, a protein belonging to the GalR-Lacl family of bacterial transcriptional repressors/activators, and the seryl-phosphorylated form of HPr, a phosphocarrier protein of the(More)
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is the prototype of a signal transduction mechanism. In enteric bacteria, cAMP was considered to be the second messenger in CCR by playing a role reminiscent of its actions in eukaryotic cells. However, recent results suggest that CCR in Escherichia coli is mediated mainly by an inducer exclusion mechanism. In many(More)
The HPr kinase of Gram-positive bacteria is an ATP-dependent serine protein kinase, which phosphorylates the HPr protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) and is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. The hprK gene from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The deduced amino acid(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation followed by fibrosis is a component of islet dysfunction in both rodent and human type 2 diabetes. Because islet inflammation may originate from endothelial cells, we assessed the expression of selected genes involved in endothelial cell activation in islets from a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. We(More)
LevR, which controls the expression of the levoperon of Bacillus subtilis, is a regulatory protein containing an N-terminal domain similar to the NifA/NtrC transcriptional activator family and a C-terminal domain similar to the regulatory part of bacterial anti-terminators, such as BgIG and LicT. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of LevR is regulated(More)
The main function of the bacterial phosphotransferase system is to transport and to phosphorylate mono- and disaccharides as well as sugar alcohols. However, the phosphotransferase system is also involved in regulation of carbon metabolism. In Grampositive bacteria, it is implicated in carbon catabolite repression and regulation of expression of catabolic(More)
PURPOSE We compared an iontophoresis riboflavin delivery technique for transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking (I-CXL) with a conventional CXL (C-CXL). METHODS We designed three experimental sets using 152 New Zealand rabbits to study riboflavin application by iontophoresis using charged riboflavin solution (Ricrolin+) with a 1-mA current for 5(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS A high-fat diet affects liver metabolism, leading to steatosis, a complex disorder related to insulin resistance and mitochondrial alterations. Steatosis is still poorly understood since diverse effects have been reported, depending on the different experimental models used. METHODS We hereby report the effects of an 8 week high-fat diet(More)
We have cloned and sequenced the Lactobacillus casei hprK gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme HPr kinase/P-Ser-HPr phosphatase (HprK/P). Purified recombinant L. casei HprK/P catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of HPr, a phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system at the regulatory Ser-46 as well as the(More)