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Isoamylases are debranching enzymes that hydrolyze alpha-1,6 linkages in alpha-1,4/alpha-1,6-linked glucan polymers. In plants, they have been shown to be required for the normal synthesis of amylopectin, although the precise manner in which they influence starch synthesis is still debated. cDNA clones encoding three distinct isoamylase isoforms (Stisa1,(More)
Rhizobial bacteria enter a symbiotic interaction with legumes, activating diverse responses in roots through the lipochito oligosaccharide signaling molecule Nod factor. Here, we show that NSP2 from Medicago truncatula encodes a GRAS protein essential for Nod-factor signaling. NSP2 functions downstream of Nod-factor-induced calcium spiking and a(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 amino acid sequence polymorphisms associated with expression of specific human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles suggest sites of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated selection pressure and immune escape. The associations most frequently observed are between expression of an HLA class I molecule(More)
Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys with fragile(More)
Effective long-term antiviral immunity requires specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocyte help. Failure of these helper responses can be a principle cause of viral persistence. We sought evidence that variation in HIV-1 CD4(+) T helper epitopes might contribute to this phenomenon. To determine this, we assayed fresh peripheral blood(More)
  • Paul Warmington, Harry Daniels, Anne Edwards, Steve Brown, Jane Leadbetter, Deirdre Martin +1 other
  • 2007
3 Interagency working: rationale and definitions 13 4 Interagency working as co-configuration 17 5 Object-orientated analyses of interagency working 26 6 Bureaucratic analyses of interagency working 37 7 Knots, teams and networks 39 8 Boundary-crossing 44 9 Conclusion 48 References 49 Acknowledgments The Learning in and for Interagency Working project is(More)
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a nonenveloped DNA virus that traffics through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) en route to the nucleus, but the mechanisms of capsid disassembly and ER exit are poorly understood. We conducted an unbiased RNA interference screen to identify cellular genes required for SV40 infection. SV40 infection was specifically inhibited by up(More)
Ash dieback is a devastating fungal disease of ash trees that has swept across Europe and recently reached the UK. This emergent pathogen has received little study in the past and its effect threatens to overwhelm the ash population. In response to this we have produced some initial genomics datasets and taken the unusual step of releasing them to the(More)
Mutations at the rug5 (rugosus5) locus have been used to elucidate the role of the major soluble isoform of starch synthase II (SSII) in amylopectin synthesis in the developing pea embryo. The SSII gene maps to the rug5 locus, and the gene in one of three rug5 mutant lines has been shown to carry a base pair substitution that introduces a stop codon into(More)
Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be insignificant in the synthesis of amylose in pea leaves. cDNA clones(More)