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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 amino acid sequence polymorphisms associated with expression of specific human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles suggest sites of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated selection pressure and immune escape. The associations most frequently observed are between expression of an HLA class I molecule(More)
Effective long-term antiviral immunity requires specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocyte help. Failure of these helper responses can be a principle cause of viral persistence. We sought evidence that variation in HIV-1 CD4(+) T helper epitopes might contribute to this phenomenon. To determine this, we assayed fresh peripheral blood(More)
Isoamylases are debranching enzymes that hydrolyze alpha-1,6 linkages in alpha-1,4/alpha-1,6-linked glucan polymers. In plants, they have been shown to be required for the normal synthesis of amylopectin, although the precise manner in which they influence starch synthesis is still debated. cDNA clones encoding three distinct isoamylase isoforms (Stisa1,(More)
Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys with fragile(More)
Ash dieback is a devastating fungal disease of ash trees that has swept across Europe and recently reached the UK. This emergent pathogen has received little study in the past and its effect threatens to overwhelm the ash population. In response to this we have produced some initial genomics datasets and taken the unusual step of releasing them to the(More)
Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be insignificant in the synthesis of amylose in pea leaves. cDNA clones(More)
To become highly proficient at a given surgical procedure and to reduce risk to patients, physicians must gain experience through a number means. Some surgical procedures can be learned through practice on cadavers, animals, or physical models. Today computer models can provide the required realism to provide highly effective training. This paper presents a(More)
Recent studies in the SIV-macaque model of HIV infection suggest that Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses may mediate highly effective immune control of viraemia. In HIV infection Nef recognition dominates in acute infection, but in large cohort studies of chronically infected subjects, breadth of T cell responses to Nef has not been correlated with(More)
In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, quorum-sensing is regulated by CinR, which induces the cinIS operon. CinI synthesizes an AHL, whereas CinS inactivates PraR, a repressor. Mutation of praR enhanced biofilms in vitro. We developed a light (lux)-dependent assay of rhizobial attachment to roots and demonstrated that mutation of praR increased biofilms on(More)
A total of 679 families who had at least one child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were recruited from a research registry to participate in a survey examining cascade testing and communication about FXS. Families had a total of 1117 children (804 males, 313 females). Most families (84 %) had tested all of their children. The main reason for not testing,(More)