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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and sheep scrapie. Although one of the earliest events during TSE infection is the cellular uptake of protease resistant prion protein (PrP-res), this process is poorly understood due to the(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, that affects deer, elk, and moose. Human susceptibility to CWD remains unproven despite likely exposure to CWD-infected cervids. We used 2 nonhuman primate species, cynomolgus macaques and squirrel monkeys, as human models for CWD susceptibility. CWD was inoculated(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a widespread health concern because its potential for crossspecies transmission is undetermined. CWD prevalence in wild elk is much lower than its prevalence in wild deer, and whether CWD-infected deer and elk differ in ability to infect other species is unknown. Because lymphoid tissues are important in the(More)
The hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) is the accumulation of an abnormally folded, partially protease-resistant form (PrP-res) of the normal protease-sensitive prion protein (PrP-sen). PrP-sen is attached to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. In vitro, the anchor and the local(More)
Prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and scrapie in sheep are fatal neurodegenerative diseases for which there is no effective treatment. The pathology of these diseases involves the conversion of a protease sensitive form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a protease resistant(More)
Prion diseases are fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. An abnormally protease-resistant and insoluble form (PrP(Sc)) of the normally soluble protease-sensitive host prion protein (PrP(C)) is the major component of the infectious prion. During the course of prion disease, PrP(Sc) accumulates primarily in the(More)
Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in(More)
In most forms of prion disease, infectivity is present primarily in the central nervous system or immune system organs such as spleen and lymph node. However, a transgenic mouse model of prion disease has demonstrated that prion infectivity can also be present as amyloid deposits in heart tissue. Deposition of infectious prions as amyloid in human heart(More)
Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a mammalian glycoprotein which is usually found anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. PrPC misfolds to a pathogenic isoform PrPSc, the causative agent of neurodegenerative prion diseases. The precise function of PrPC remains elusive but may depend upon its cellular localization. Here(More)
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