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The use of tricyclic antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Despite a better side effect profile, this adverse effect has also been reported for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. To determine whether these findings result from bias arising from the case-control method, the authors have performed a case-control analysis(More)
BACKGROUND The role of long-acting, inhaled beta2-agonists in treating asthma is uncertain. In a double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of adding inhaled formoterol to both lower and higher doses of the inhaled glucocorticoid budesonide. METHODS After a four-week run-in period of treatment with budesonide (800 microg twice daily), 852 patients being(More)
The International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire (1984) was developed for use in studies of asthma and its reliability measured in an earlier survey in England. The association of the symptoms elicited by this questionnaire to bronchial response to histamine has also been described. This paper presents(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of continuous use of oral steroids in the general population, the conditions for which they are prescribed, and the extent to which patients taking oral steroids are taking treatment to prevent osteoporosis. DESIGN A cross sectional study with a four year retrospective review of drug treatment. SETTING Eight large(More)
The responses to oral propranolol (80 mg) and placebo were compared in normal subjects during three studies on a cycle ergometer (progressive exercise and two 5-min constant work rate studies at 50 and 70% maximum). Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), CO2 output (VCO2) and O2 uptake (VO2) were measured in each study and metabolites in venous blood in the 70%(More)
BACKGROUND Inhaled corticosteroids are clearly beneficial for patients with asthma of moderate severity, but the risks and benefits of using them in patients with milder asthma are less clear. We have compared the change in bone mineral density over 2 years in adults with mild asthma randomised to receive an inhaled corticosteroid or non-corticosteroid(More)
A questionnaire developed by the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) to assess bronchial symptoms has been tested for its ability to predict the bronchial response to histamine in adults aged 18-64 years living in two areas of southern England. A number of questions were found to be independently associated with increased(More)
The optimal treatment for mild asthma is uncertain. We assessed the effects of adding a long-acting inhaled beta-agonist, formoterol, to low doses of an inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, for 1 yr in subjects with mild asthma, receiving no or only a small dose of inhaled corticosteroid. The 698 corticosteroid free patients (Group A) were assigned to twice(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma self-management plans that include doubling the dose of inhaled corticosteroid when the condition deteriorates improve asthma control. Whether doubling the dose of corticosteroid in isolation is effective is unknown. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effects of doubling the dose of inhaled corticosteriods when(More)
The identification, prevention, and prompt treatment of exacerbations are major objectives of asthma management. We looked at change in PEF, symptoms, and use of rescue beta-agonists during the 425 severe exacerbations that occurred during a 12-mo parallel group study (FACET) in which low and high doses of budesonide with and without formoterol were(More)