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We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new(More)
Tobacco smoking is the most important and well-established bladder cancer risk factor and a rich source of chemical carcinogens and reactive oxygen species that can induce damage to DNA in urothelial cells. Therefore, common variation in DNA repair genes might modify bladder cancer risk. In this study, we present results from meta-analyses and pooled(More)
INTRODUCTION Radiotherapy offers the potential of bladder preservation in muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but only a proportion of tumors respond, and there are no accurate predictive methods. The ability of tumor cells to repair DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation influences radiosensitivity. We therefore investigated the prognostic value of the DNA(More)
Radical radiotherapy and surgery achieve similar cure rates in muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but the choice of which treatment would be most beneficial cannot currently be predicted for individual patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether expression of any of a panel of DNA damage signaling proteins in tumor samples taken before(More)
A study was made of the neutral comet assay as a potential method for measuring normal cell radiosensitivity. Eleven fibroblast strains were studied comprising nine derived from vaginal biopsies from pretreatment cervical cancer patients and two strains from radiosensitive individuals. DNA double strand break (dsbs) dose-response curves for both initial and(More)
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking and chemical occupational exposure are the main known risk factors for bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Oxidative DNA damage induced by carcinogens present in these exposures requires accurate base excision repair (BER). The XRCC1 protein plays a crucial role in BER by acting as a scaffold for other BER enzymes.(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through binding to messenger RNAs (mRNA) thereby promoting mRNA degradation or altered translation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within a miRNA-binding site could thus alter mRNA translation and influence cancer risk and treatment response. The common(More)
Many cancers display increased expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and therefore transcriptionally inactive chromatin, resulting in the downregulation of genes including tumour suppressor and DNA repair genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a heterogeneous group of epigenetic therapeutics, showing promising anticancer effects in both(More)
Bladder cancers are a leading cause of death from malignancy. Molecular markers might predict disease progression and behaviour more accurately than the available prognostic factors. Here we use whole-genome sequencing to identify somatic mutations and chromosomal changes in 14 bladder cancers of different grades and stages. As well as detecting the known(More)
In human cells DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. In a background of NHEJ deficiency, DSBs with mismatched ends can be joined by an error-prone mechanism involving joining between regions of nucleotide microhomology. The majority of joins formed from a DSB with partially incompatible 3'(More)