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Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major(More)
Three experiments explored the gradual narrowing of visual attention to a letter target when other letters were positioned close by. The method by which attention was narrowed involved presenting a digit target immediately prior to the latter target and in the same location for progressively shorter durations and requiring the subject to identify both the(More)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to promote plant growth when phosphorus is limiting, but the role of AMF in plant growth under nitrogen (N) limiting conditions is unclear. Here, we manipulated N (control vs inorganic and organic forms) and AMF species (control vs four AMF species) for five old-field perennials grown individually in a glasshouse(More)
outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lacta-mase (ESBL)–producing Shigella sonnei at a day care nursery in Sakai City, 2006.tre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology.ing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, an-timicrobial susceptibility and clinical(More)
Based on stable isotope measurements, Ghosh et al. (Reports, 27 January 2006, p. 511) concluded that the Bolivian Altiplano uplifted 3 to 4 kilometers between approximately 10.3 and approximately 6.7 million years ago as a result of gravitational loss of dense lithosphere. This result stands at odds with current geological knowledge of the Central Andes,(More)
To understand which soil chemical properties are the best predictors of CH4 production in rice paddy soils, a model was developed with empirical data from nine types of rice soils collected around Japan and anaerobically incubated at 30 degrees C for 16 wk in laboratory conditions. After 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk of incubation, CO2, CH4, and Fe(II) were(More)
Although there are approximately 5 billion metric tons of nitrogen (N) in the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial and marine biota, soil organic matter, and sedimentary rock, less than 2% is bioavailable. N availability is frequently observed to limit primary productivity and hence carbon (C) uptake and storage in a wide array of ecosystems[1,2]. Anthropogenic(More)
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