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Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions is predicted to raise the mean global temperature by 1.0–3.5°C in the next 50–100 years. The direct and indirect effects of this potential increase in temperature on terrestrial ecosystems and ecosystem processes are likely to be complex and highly varied in time and space. The Global Change and Terrestrial(More)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to promote plant growth when phosphorus is limiting, but the role of AMF in plant growth under nitrogen (N) limiting conditions is unclear. Here, we manipulated N (control vs inorganic and organic forms) and AMF species (control vs four AMF species) for five old-field perennials grown individually in a glasshouse(More)
Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major(More)
If arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) promote phosphorus partitioning of plant hosts, they could provide one mechanism for the maintenance of plant community diversity. We investigated whether AMF improved the ability of old field perennials to grow on a range of phosphorus sources and whether AMF facilitated differential performance of plant species on(More)
Three experiments explored the gradual narrowing of visual attention to a letter target when other letters were positioned close by. The method by which attention was narrowed involved presenting a digit target immediately prior to the latter target and in the same location for progressively shorter durations and requiring the subject to identify both the(More)
outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lacta-mase (ESBL)–producing Shigella sonnei at a day care nursery in Sakai City, 2006.tre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology.ing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, an-timicrobial susceptibility and clinical(More)
Based on stable isotope measurements, Ghosh et al. (Reports, 27 January 2006, p. 511) concluded that the Bolivian Altiplano uplifted 3 to 4 kilometers between approximately 10.3 and approximately 6.7 million years ago as a result of gravitational loss of dense lithosphere. This result stands at odds with current geological knowledge of the Central Andes,(More)
To understand which soil chemical properties are the best predictors of CH4 production in rice paddy soils, a model was developed with empirical data from nine types of rice soils collected around Japan and anaerobically incubated at 30 degrees C for 16 wk in laboratory conditions. After 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk of incubation, CO2, CH4, and Fe(II) were(More)
The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N(More)
We conducted a field experiment in an Andosol near Tsukuba (Japan) to study the effects of the type of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and on nitrogen uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). We used four treatments: fertilizer containing no nitrogen (CONT), broadcast application of urea (BR-U), band application of urea(More)