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The pineal gland, through nocturnal melatonin, acts as a neuroendocrine transducer of daily and seasonal time. Melatonin synthesis is driven by rhythmic activation of the rate-limiting enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT). In ungulates, AA-NAT mRNA is constitutively high throughout the 24-h cycle, and melatonin production is primarily(More)
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