Learn More
Calcium-triggered exocytosis at the synapse is suppressed by addition of calcium chelators, but the effects of endogenous Ca(2+) buffers have not been tested. We find that 80% of Ca(2+) binding sites in the synaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells were associated with mobile molecules that suppressed activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels with an(More)
BACKGROUND Most synapses release neurotransmitter as transient pulses, but ribbon synapses of sensory neurons support continuous exocytosis in response to maintained stimulation. We have investigated how the movement and retrieval of vesicles might contribute to continuous exocytosis at the ribbon synapse of retinal bipolar cells. RESULTS Using a(More)
The mechanism of bulk membrane uptake at the synapse remains poorly defined, although exocytosis of synaptic vesicles is followed by compensatory membrane retrieval into both small vesicles and large cisternas or vacuoles. We investigated bulk retrieval in the presynaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells. Fluorescence imaging of the membrane dye FM1-43(More)
Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, but it is not clear whether they play a pathogenic role in type 1 diabetes. Here we investigated whether mouse Th17 cells with specificity for an islet antigen can induce diabetes upon transfer into NOD/SCID recipient mice. Induction of diabetes in NOD/SCID mice via adoptive transfer(More)
  • Anne Cooke
  • 2006
CD4(+) T cells have been subdivided into different subsets, largely on the basis of the cytokines they produce. These subsets include Th1, Th2 and regulatory T cells. Recently, another population of T cells have been described, namely Th17, which are characterized by their production of IL-17. Two other important cytokines, which are related to each other,(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a disease with an autoimmune aetiology. The non-obese diabetic mouse is a good spontaneous animal model of the human disease, with IDDM developing in 50-80% of female mice by the age of 6 months. The disease can be transferred by splenic T cells from diabetic donors and is prevented by T-cell depletion. The(More)
The distribution of exocytic sites and ion channels in the synaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells was investigated by measuring capacitance and conductance changes in cell-attached patches of presynaptic membrane. Patch depolarization evoked capacitance and conductance increases that were inhibited by blocking Ca(2+) influx or loading the terminal with(More)
We have shown that Schistosoma mansoni egg soluble antigen (SEA) prevents diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse inducing functional changes in antigen presenting cells (APCs) and expanding T helper (Th) 2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) responses. A Th2 response to S. mansoni infection or its antigens is key to both the establishment of tolerance and(More)
Although thyroglobulin (Tg), the thyroid prohormone, is well known as a T cell dependent autoantigen in human and experimental autoimmune thyroid disease, very little is known about the molecular basis of Tg recognition by T cells. In this paper, we have characterized the epitopes recognized by two clonotypically distinct, murine Tg autoreactive T cell(More)