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Calcium-triggered exocytosis at the synapse is suppressed by addition of calcium chelators, but the effects of endogenous Ca(2+) buffers have not been tested. We find that 80% of Ca(2+) binding sites in the synaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells were associated with mobile molecules that suppressed activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels with an(More)
BACKGROUND Most synapses release neurotransmitter as transient pulses, but ribbon synapses of sensory neurons support continuous exocytosis in response to maintained stimulation. We have investigated how the movement and retrieval of vesicles might contribute to continuous exocytosis at the ribbon synapse of retinal bipolar cells. RESULTS Using a(More)
The mechanism of bulk membrane uptake at the synapse remains poorly defined, although exocytosis of synaptic vesicles is followed by compensatory membrane retrieval into both small vesicles and large cisternas or vacuoles. We investigated bulk retrieval in the presynaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells. Fluorescence imaging of the membrane dye FM1-43(More)
The distribution of exocytic sites and ion channels in the synaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells was investigated by measuring capacitance and conductance changes in cell-attached patches of presynaptic membrane. Patch depolarization evoked capacitance and conductance increases that were inhibited by blocking Ca(2+) influx or loading the terminal with(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a disease with an autoimmune aetiology. The non-obese diabetic mouse is a good spontaneous animal model of the human disease, with IDDM developing in 50-80% of female mice by the age of 6 months. The disease can be transferred by splenic T cells from diabetic donors and is prevented by T-cell depletion. The(More)
We have shown that Schistosoma mansoni egg soluble antigen (SEA) prevents diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse inducing functional changes in antigen presenting cells (APCs) and expanding T helper (Th) 2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) responses. A Th2 response to S. mansoni infection or its antigens is key to both the establishment of tolerance and(More)
Although thyroglobulin (Tg), the thyroid prohormone, is well known as a T cell dependent autoantigen in human and experimental autoimmune thyroid disease, very little is known about the molecular basis of Tg recognition by T cells. In this paper, we have characterized the epitopes recognized by two clonotypically distinct, murine Tg autoreactive T cell(More)
Recent experiments in the murine system have indicated that the passive acquisition by offspring of maternal anti-malarial IgG antibodies while conferring some degree of immunity against a primary infection, paradoxically prevents the generation of acquired immunity through vaccination. Therefore, in view of earlier findings concerning the competitive(More)
In this paper, we test the hypothesis that triggering of a second T cell receptor (TCR) expressed on diabetogenic T cells might initiate the onset of diabetes. A cross between two TCR-transgenic strains, the BDC2.5 strain that carries diabetogenic TCRs and the A18 strain that carries receptors specific for C5, was set up to monitor development of diabetes(More)