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Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibit translation initiation. This response is believed to be mediated by increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and is hypothesized to reduce the work load imposed on the folding machinery during stress. Here we report that mutating the gene encoding the ER(More)
Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound(More)
PERK and IRE1 are type-I transmembrane protein kinases that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transmit stress signals in response to perturbation of protein folding. Here we show that the lumenal domains of these two proteins are functionally interchangeable in mediating an ER stress response and that, in unstressed cells, both lumenal domains(More)
Deposition of proteins of aberrant conformation is the hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Misfolding of the normally globular mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) is a central, early, but poorly understood event in the pathogenic cascade leading to familial forms of ALS. Here we report that aggregates composed of an ALS-causing SOD1 mutant(More)
The mechanisms leading to neuronal death in neurodegenerative disease are poorly understood. Many of these disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases, are associated with the accumulation of misfolded disease-specific proteins. The unfolded protein response is a protective cellular mechanism triggered by rising levels of misfolded(More)
The epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract are exposed to toxins and infectious agents that can adversely affect protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cause ER stress. The IRE1 genes are implicated in sensing and responding to ER stress signals. We found that epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract express IRE1beta, a specific(More)
Genetic analysis of the cellular adaptation to malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (the unfolded protein response - UPR) has revealed a novel signaling pathway initiated by activation of IRE1, an ER-resident protein kinase and endonuclease. In yeast, Ire1p activates gene expression by promoting a non-conventional splicing event that converts the(More)
The mechanisms leading to neuronal death in neurodegenerative disease are poorly understood. Many of these disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases, are associated with the accumulation of misfolded disease-specific proteins. The unfolded protein response is a protective cellular mechanism triggered by rising levels of misfolded(More)
Many biological processes are regulated through the selective dephosphorylation of proteins. Protein serine-threonine phosphatases are assembled from catalytic subunits bound to diverse regulatory subunits that provide substrate specificity and subcellular localization. We describe a small molecule, guanabenz, that bound to a regulatory subunit of protein(More)