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An ecosystem services (ES) approach to natural resource management (NRM) can provide the framework for balancing economic, ecological, and societal drivers in decision making. The efficacy of such an approach depends on the successful execution of several key activities, from early and continuous engagement with relevant stakeholders, to development and(More)
Mechanistic effect models have been applied to ecotoxicological questions for over 25 years (e.g. O'Neill et al. 1982; Kooijman and Metz 1984; Pastorok et al. 2003), but their use in regulatory risk assessment has been very limited so far. Recently, the value of models in support of regulatory ecological risk assessments is being recognised. Thus, such(More)
Ecosystems provide the conditions for producing food, regulating water, and providing wildlife habitats; these, among others, are known as ecosystem services (ESs). Food production is both economically and culturally important to southern European farmers, particularly in Italy where farmers grow flavorsome tomatoes with passion and pride. Growers rely on(More)
Debate about how sustainable intensification and multifunctionality might be implemented continues, but there remains little understanding as to what extent they are achievable in arable landscapes. Policies that influence agronomic decisions are rarely made with an appreciation of the trade-offs that exist between food production, biodiversity conservation(More)
General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their(More)
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