Annamaria Vezzani

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PURPOSE   Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are localized regions of malformed cerebral cortex and are very frequently associated with epilepsy in both children and adults. A broad spectrum of histopathology has been included in the diagnosis of FCD. An ILAE task force proposes an international consensus classification system to better characterize specific(More)
In many species, the Sox2 transcription factor is a marker of the nervous system from the beginning of its development, and we have previously shown that Sox2 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells. It is also expressed in, and is essential for, totipotent inner cell mass stem cells and other multipotent cell lineages, and its ablation causes early(More)
Inflammatory reactions occur in the brain in various CNS diseases, including autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and epileptic disorders. Proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines and related molecules have been described in CNS and plasma, in experimental models of seizures and in clinical cases of epilepsy. Inflammation involves both the innate and the(More)
We investigated the activation of the IL-1 beta system and markers of adaptive immunity in rat brain during epileptogenesis using models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The same inflammatory markers were studied in rat chronic epileptic tissue and in human TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). IL-1 beta was expressed by both activated microglia and(More)
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, and is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures. Despite progress in pharmacological and surgical treatments of epilepsy, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of individual seizures, and about the mechanisms whereby a healthy brain is(More)
Brain inflammation is a major factor in epilepsy, but the impact of specific inflammatory mediators on neuronal excitability is incompletely understood. Using models of acute and chronic seizures in C57BL/6 mice, we discovered a proconvulsant pathway involving high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) release from neurons and glia and its interaction with Toll-like(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1beta is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in various pathophysiological conditions of the CNS involving NMDA receptor activation. Circumstantial evidence suggests that IL-1beta and NMDA receptors can functionally interact. Using primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated whether IL-1beta affects NMDA receptor(More)
The high concentration of the tyrosine-rich polypeptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and the increase in the number of its receptor subtypes that have been characterized in the brain, raise the question of a functional role for NPY in the CNS. In addition to its peripheral actions on cardiovascular regulation, much attention has, therefore, been devoted to the(More)
IL-1beta and its endogenous receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are rapidly induced by seizures in the rodent hippocampus. Exogenously applied IL-1beta prolongs seizures in an IL-1R type I-mediated manner. This effect depends on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. We report here that intrahippocampal application of recombinant IL-1Ra or its selective(More)
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and glioneuronal tumors (GNT) are recognized causes of chronic intractable epilepsy. The cellular mechanism(s) underlying their epileptogenicity remain largely unknown. Compelling evidence in experimental models of seizures indicates an important role of interleukin (IL)-1beta in the mechanisms of hyperexcitability leading to(More)