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Persistent activation of GABAA receptors by extracellular GABA (tonic inhibition) plays a critical role in signal processing and network excitability in the brain. In hippocampal principal cells, tonic inhibition has been reported to be mediated by alpha5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors (alpha5GABAARs). Pharmacological or genetic disruption of these(More)
Under some conditions, synaptically released glutamate can exert long-range actions in the cortical microcircuitry. To what extent glutamate spillover leads to direct cross talk among individual synapses remains unclear. We recorded NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in acute hippocampal slices at 35 degrees C by stimulating two independent pathways that converge on the(More)
Actions of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate inside and outside the synaptic cleft determine the activity of neural circuits in the brain. However, to what degree local glutamate transporters affect these actions on a submicron scale remains poorly understood. Here we focus on hippocampal area CA1, a common subject of synaptic physiology studies.(More)
The perforant path provides the main excitatory input into the hippocampus and has been proposed to play a critical role in the generation of temporal lobe seizures. It has been hypothesized that changes in glutamatergic transmission in this pathway promote the epileptogenic process and seizure generation. We therefore asked whether epileptogenesis is(More)
Establishing the temporal and concentration profiles of neurotransmitters during synaptic release is an essential step towards understanding the basic properties of inter-neuronal communication in the central nervous system. A variety of ingenious attempts has been made to gain insights into this process, but the general inaccessibility of central synapses,(More)
GABA(A) receptors can mediate both phasic (synaptic) and tonic (extrasynaptic) forms of inhibition. It has been proposed that tonic inhibition plays a critical part in controlling neuronal and network excitability. Although tonic GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents have been well characterized in rodents, their existence in human tissue has yet to be(More)
Fast synaptic transmission requires tight colocalization of Ca(2+) channels and neurotransmitter vesicles. It is generally thought that Ca(2+) channels are expressed abundantly in presynaptic active zones, that vesicles within the same active zone have similar release properties, and that significant vesicle depletion only occurs at synapses with high(More)
GLT-1, the major glutamate transporter in the adult brain, is abundantly expressed in astrocytic processes enveloping synapses. By limiting glutamate escape into the surrounding neuropil, GLT-1 preserves the spatial specificity of synaptic signaling. Here we show that the amyloid-β peptide Aβ1-42 markedly prolongs the extracellular lifetime of synaptically(More)
In the mammalian brain, the specificity of excitatory synaptic transmission depends on rapid diffusion of glutamate away from active synapses and the powerful uptake capacity of glutamate transporters in astrocytes. The extent to which neuronal glutamate transporters influence the lifetime of glutamate in the extracellular space remains unclear. Here we(More)
GABA transporters belong to a large family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. They are widely expressed throughout the brain, with different levels of expression in different brain regions. GABA transporters are present in neurons and in astrocytes and their activity is crucial to regulate the extracellular concentration of GABA under basal conditions(More)