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BACKGROUND Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential regulatory molecule in several developmental processes and in the stress response in both animal and plant systems. Furthermore, key features of plant resistance to pathogens have been shown to depend on NO production, e.g., defense gene expression and the activation of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in synergy with(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs; MAP3Ks) are important components of MAPK cascades, which are highly conserved signal transduction pathways in animals, yeast and plants, play important roles in plant growth and development. MAPKKKs have been investigated on their evolution and expression patterns in limited plants including(More)
The smaller isoform of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is a major islet autoantigen in autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Transgenic plants expressing human GAD65 (hGAD65) are a potential means of direct oral administration of the islet autoantigen in order to induce tolerance and prevent clinical onset of disease. We have previously(More)
BACKGROUND The oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni causes downy mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). This pathogen is strictly biotrophic, thus completely dependent on living host cells for its survival. The molecular basis of compatibility and disease development in this system is poorly understood. We have carried out a(More)
In recent years a particular class of probabilistic graphical models—called topic models—has proven to represent an useful and interpretable tool for understanding and mining microarray data. In this context, such models have been almost only applied in the clustering scenario, whereas the classification task has been disregarded by(More)
BACKGROUND Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive molecule that rapidly diffuses and permeates cell membranes. In animals, NO is implicated in a number of diverse physiological processes, such as neurotransmission, vascular smooth muscle relaxation, and platelet inhibition. It may have beneficial effects, e.g., as a messenger in immune responses, but it is also(More)
In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a fundamental molecule that interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a variety of ways, either as a crucial partner in determining cell fate or in signaling in response to a number of physiological and stress-related conditions. The best characterized relationship between NO with ROS refers(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants, including growth, development, response to pathogens, and interactions with beneficial microorganisms. In this work, a dedicated microarray representing the widest database available of NO-related transcripts in plants has been produced with 999 genes identified by a cDNA amplified(More)