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Natural killer cell stimulatory factor or interleukin 12 (NKSF/IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophages, B cells, and possibly other accessory cell types primarily in response to bacteria or bacterial products. NKSF/IL-12 mediates pleiomorphic biological activity on T and NK cells and, alone or in synergy with other inducers, is(More)
The expression of KIR and CD94:NKG2 receptors was determined for more than 100 natural killer (NK) cell clones obtained from two blood donors who differ in their HLA class I and KIR genes. More than 98% of the clones were inhibited by individual autologous class I allotypes, and every clone was inhibited by the combination of autologous allotypes. The(More)
Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), or interleukin 12 (IL-12), is a 70-kD heterodimeric cytokine composed of two covalently linked chains, p40 and p35. NKSF/IL-12 has multiple effects on T and NK cells and was originally identified and purified from the supernatant fluid of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B lymphoblastoid cell lines.(More)
The production of cytokines in monocytes/macrophages is regulated by several different cytokines that have activating or inhibitory effects. Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IL-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta are usually considered to be the most important macrophage-deactivating factors, with inhibitory effects on cytokine production. Unlike IL-10(More)
The protein HLA-E is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule of limited sequence variability. Its expression on the cell surface is regulated by the binding of peptides derived from the signal sequence of some other MHC class I molecules. Here we report the identification of ligands for HLA-E. We constructed tetramers in which(More)
The immune response against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is rarely effective at clearing the virus, resulting in approximately 170 million chronic HCV infections worldwide. Here we report that ligation of an HCV receptor (CD81) inhibits natural killer (NK) cells. Cross-linking of CD81 by the major envelope protein of HCV (HCV-E2) or anti-CD81 antibodies blocks(More)
We have analyzed the effects of NK cell stimulatory factor/IL-12, on proliferation of PBL and their subsets. IL-12 synergizes with lectins and phorbol diesters to induce proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes. In the case of phorbol-diester-induced proliferation, the effect of IL-12 is in part mediated by induced IL-2 production, as(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, asymptomatic or with acquired immunodeficiency virus, produced 10-fold less interleukin 12 (IL-12) free heavy chain and fivefold less biologically active IL-12 heterodimer than PBMC from uninfected healthy donors when challenged in vitro with the common(More)
The healthy liver of adult humans has little or no lymphocyte component and the histological finding of intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHL) is evidence of liver pathology. In a liver injured by chronic hepatitis C, the most common chronic liver disease, most IHL are activated/pro-inflammatory cells, which are particularly enriched for effectors of innate(More)
The expression of certain MHC class I allotypes by potential target cells can inhibit NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We recently identified the NKB1 surface Ag, expressed on T and NK cell subsets, as a putative inhibitory receptor for HLA-B class I molecules possessing the Bw4 serologic epitope. NKB1 is a 70-kDa glycoprotein that after deglycosylation(More)