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In the recent past, basal ganglia circuitry was simplified as represented by the direct and indirect pathways and by hyperdirect pathways. Based on data from animal studies, we hypothesized a fourth pathway, the cortico-pallidal, pathway, that complements the hyperdirect pathway to the subthalamus. Ten normal brains were analyzed by using the high angular(More)
Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the(More)
Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms do not deteriorate with the increase of white matter vascular lesion in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects [1], although white matter is impaired along Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested whether this is true even in AD subjects. Closed-eye resting state EEG data were recorded in 40(More)
BACKGROUND The North American Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (NA-ADNI) was the first program to develop standardized procedures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging biomarker collection. OBJECTIVE We describe the validation of acquisition and processing of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in different Italian academic AD clinics(More)
Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that these sources in amnesic MCI subjects further deteriorate over 1 year. To this aim, the resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 54 MCI subjects at baseline (Mini Mental State(More)
We reported a case of an elderly female patient affected by musical hallucinations (MHs) as the unique symptom of a right temporal ischemic stroke. A functional magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in the patient and in five age- and sex-matched normal controls (NC) to detect the complex neural substrate subserving MHs in such a context.(More)
BACKGROUND Functional studies have been previous reported in stroke patients, but no studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging have been performed in Moyamoya disease. OBJECTIVE To assess the cortical and cerebellar reorganization in a moyamoya patient. METHODS We reported a case of a patient suffering from moyamoya disease, undergoing a(More)
Our objective was to assess the role of Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy (ITB) in the cortical reorganization in a patient affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) undergoing physical therapy. We reported a case of a woman affected by MS and severe spasticity, who performed an fMRI examination, before and after the ITB implantation. The subject showed controlateral(More)
BACKGROUND Gray matter atrophy is regarded as a valid marker of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but few studies have investigated in detail the topographic changes associated with normal aging. In addition, few studies have compared the changes in the earliest clinical stage of AD (prodromal AD (pAD)) with those of healthy aging. Here we(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD,(More)
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