Annabelle Varrot

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Cellulases are traditionally classified as either endoglucanases or cellobiohydrolases on the basis of their respective catalytic activities on crystalline cellulose, which is generally hydrolysed more efficiently only by the cellobiohydrolases. On the basis of the Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II structure, it was proposed that the active-site(More)
Codakine is an abundant 14-kDa mannose-binding C-type lectin isolated from the gills of the sea bivalve Codakia orbicularis. Binding studies using inhibition of hemagglutination indicated specificity for mannose and fucose monosaccharides. Further experiments using a glycan array demonstrated, however, a very fine specificity for N-linked biantennary(More)
Chronic colonization of the lungs by opportunist bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and members of the Bcc (Burkholderia cepacia complex) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among CF (cystic fibrosis) patients. PA-IIL (lecB gene), a soluble lectin from Ps. aeruginosa, has been the subject of much interest because of its very strong affinity(More)
The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia expresses several soluble lectins, among them BC2L-C. This lectin exhibits two domains: a C-terminal domain with high sequence similarity to the recently described calcium-dependent mannose-binding lectin BC2L-A, and an N-terminal domain of 156 amino acids without similarity to any known protein. The(More)
The mechanisms of crystalline cellulose degradation by cellulases are of paramount importance for the exploitation of these enzymes in applied processes, such as biomass conversion. Cellulases have traditionally been classified into cellobiohydrolases, which are effective in the degradation of crystalline materials, and endoglucanases, which appear to act(More)
GlvA, a 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase from Bacillus subtilis, catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose-6'-phosphate and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family GH4. GH4 enzymes are unique in their requirement for NAD(H) and a divalent metal for activity. We have determined the crystal structure of GlvA in complex with its ligands to 2.05 A resolution. Analyses of(More)
Among the numerous well-characterized families of glycosidases, family 4 appears to be the anomaly, requiring both catalytic NAD+ and a divalent metal for activity. The unusual cofactor requirement prompted the proposal of a mechanism involving key NAD+-mediated redox steps as well as elimination of the glycosidic oxygen. Primary kinetic isotope effects for(More)
The import of disaccharides by many bacteria is achieved through their simultaneous translocation and phosphorylation by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS). The imported phospho-disaccharides are, in some cases, subsequently hydrolyzed by members of the unusual glycoside hydrolase family GH4. The GH4 enzymes, occasionally(More)
Many three-dimensional structures of retaining beta-D-glycoside hydrolases have been determined, yet oligosaccharide complexes in which the ligand spans the catalytic centre are rare. Those that have been reported so far have revealed two modes of binding: those in which the substrate adopts a distorted skew-boat or envelope conformation in the -1 subsite,(More)
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains several carbohydrate-binding proteins, among which is the P. aeruginosa lectin I (PA-IL), which displays affinity for alpha-galactosylated glycans. Glycan arrays were screened and demonstrated stronger binding of PA-IL toward alphaGal1-4betaGal-terminating structures and weaker binding to(More)