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Cellulases are traditionally classified as either endoglucanases or cellobiohydrolases on the basis of their respective catalytic activities on crystalline cellulose, which is generally hydrolysed more efficiently only by the cellobiohydrolases. On the basis of the Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II structure, it was proposed that the active-site(More)
GlvA, a 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase from Bacillus subtilis, catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose-6'-phosphate and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family GH4. GH4 enzymes are unique in their requirement for NAD(H) and a divalent metal for activity. We have determined the crystal structure of GlvA in complex with its ligands to 2.05 A resolution. Analyses of(More)
Among the numerous well-characterized families of glycosidases, family 4 appears to be the anomaly, requiring both catalytic NAD+ and a divalent metal for activity. The unusual cofactor requirement prompted the proposal of a mechanism involving key NAD+-mediated redox steps as well as elimination of the glycosidic oxygen. Primary kinetic isotope effects for(More)
The import of disaccharides by many bacteria is achieved through their simultaneous translocation and phosphorylation by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS). The imported phospho-disaccharides are, in some cases, subsequently hydrolyzed by members of the unusual glycoside hydrolase family GH4. The GH4 enzymes, occasionally(More)
Lectins are a widespread class of proteins implicated in many essential cellular and molecular recognition processes. They recognize carbohydrates in a non-catalytic, specific and reversible manner. Fungi, which include mushrooms, microfungi and yeasts, have attracted wide interest in recent years. They are indeed a promising source for novel lectins with(More)
Infection by pathogens is generally initiated by the specific recognition of host epithelia surfaces and subsequent adhesion is essential for invasion. In their infection strategy, microorganisms often use sugar-binding proteins, that is lectins and adhesins, to recognize and bind to host glycoconjugates where sialylated and fucosylated oligosaccharides are(More)
The enzymatic hydrolysis of O-glycosidic linkages is one of the most diverse and widespread reactions in nature and involves a classic "textbook" enzyme mechanism. A multidisciplinary analysis of a beta-glycoside hydrolase, the Cel5A from Bacillus agaradhaerens, is presented in which the structures of each of the native, substrate, covalent-intermediate,(More)
The enzymatic degradation of cellulose continues to be one of the most important enzyme-catalysed reactions. Glycoside hydrolases from family GH-6 hydrolyse cellulose with inversion of the configuration of the anomeric carbon. Whilst the catalytic proton donor has been clearly identified (Asp226 in Humicola insolens Cel6A), the identification and even the(More)
The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia expresses several soluble lectins, among them BC2L-C. This lectin exhibits two domains: a C-terminal domain with high sequence similarity to the recently described calcium-dependent mannose-binding lectin BC2L-A, and an N-terminal domain of 156 amino acids without similarity to any known protein. The(More)
The conformational agenda harnessed by different glycosidases along the reaction pathway has been mapped by X-ray crystallography. The transition state(s) formed during the enzymic hydrolysis of glycosides features strong oxocarbenium-ion-like character involving delocalization across the C-1-O-5 bond. This demands planarity of C-5, O-5, C-1 and C-2 at or(More)