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BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry skin and a hyperactive immune response to allergens, 2 cardinal features that are caused in part by epidermal barrier defects. Tight junctions (TJs) reside immediately below the stratum corneum and regulate the selective permeability of the paracellular pathway. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the(More)
For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the past decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex polygenic(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by epidermal tight junction (TJ) defects and a propensity for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. S. aureus is sensed by many pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). We hypothesized that an effective innate immune response will include skin barrier repair, and that this response is(More)
BACKGROUND Disruption of the epithelial barrier might be a risk factor for allergen sensitization and asthma. Viral respiratory tract infections are strongly associated with asthma exacerbation, but the effects of respiratory viruses on airway epithelial barrier function are not well understood. Many viruses generate double-stranded RNA, which can lead to(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that has increased in prevalence over the last half century. A growing body of evidence suggests that there are a variety of defects in the innate immune system that collectively affect the development and severity of AD. The reduction in antimicrobial peptides, diminished recruitment of(More)
Orchestrating when and how the cutaneous innate immune system should respond to commensal or pathogenic microbes is a critical function of the epithelium. The cutaneous innate immune system is a key determinant of the physical, chemical, microbial, and immunologic barrier functions of the epidermis. A malfunction in this system can lead to an inadequate(More)
Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. Many atypical cases have been reported and this(More)
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) skin exposure is a common exogenous insult that can alter skin barrier and immune functions. With the growing presence of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer goods and technological applications the potential for NPs to contact UVR-exposed skin is increasing. Therefore it is important to understand the effect of UVR on NP skin(More)
Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis primarily occurring in developing countries. The recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, has led to a resurgence of extrapulmonary forms of this disease. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 33-year-old woman(More)