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Symbol Units Description 8 Dimensionless scaling factors which are ratios between fundamental properties (length, mass, modulus, etc.) which characterize the two systems that are compared E MPa Modulus of elasticity F f Mpa Failure stress of tissue p Probability of injury p-value Statistical measure of the appropriateness of the model from regression(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women infected by the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus had more severe disease and higher mortality but its pathogenesis is still unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We showed that higher mortality, more severe pneumonitis, higher pulmonary viral load, lower peripheral blood T lymphocytes and antibody responses, higher levels of(More)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations,(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with a high circulating leptin level and severe 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) infection. The mechanism for severe lung injury in obese patients and the specific treatment strategy remain elusive. METHOD We studied the pathogenesis of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in a mouse model of diet-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Human infection caused by the avian influenza A H7N9 virus has a case-fatality rate of over 30%. Systematic study of the pathogenesis of avian H7N9 isolate and effective therapeutic strategies are needed. METHODS BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with an H7N9 virus isolated from a chicken in a wet market epidemiologically linked to a(More)
BACKGROUND Imiquimod, a synthetic Toll-like receptor 7 agonist enhanced immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in a mouse model. We hypothesized that topical imiquimod before intradermal influenza vaccination (TIV) would produce similar effect in human. METHODS We performed a prospective 1-year follow-up, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with(More)
We present here the complete genome sequences of nine phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease in honeybees. The phages were isolated from soil, propolis, and infected bees from three U.S. states. This is the largest number of P. larvae phage genomes sequenced in a single publication to date.
BACKGROUND The outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases caused by pathogens such as SARS coronavirus, H5N1, H1N1, and recently H7N9 influenza viruses, have been associated with significant mortality and morbidity in humans. Neutralizing antibodies from individuals who have recovered from an infection confer therapeutic protection to others infected with(More)
Chlamydophila psittaci is found worldwide, but is particularly common among psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. While investigating a human psittacosis outbreak that was associated with avian chlamydiosis in Hong Kong, we identified a novel adenovirus in epidemiologically linked Mealy Parrots, which was not present in healthy birds(More)
Avian influenza virus H7N9 has jumped species barrier, causing sporadic human infections since 2013. We have previously isolated an H7N9 virus from a patient, and an H7N9 virus from a chicken in a live poultry market where the patient visited during the incubation period. These two viruses were genetically highly similar. This study sought to use a human(More)