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Laquinimod (LAQ) is a new immunomodulatory drug shown to be effective in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS); however, its molecular target pathways are not well recognized. In this study we characterized in-vitro the molecular effects of LAQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy subjects and RRMS patients by(More)
Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) occurs in about 15% of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that over time do not develop significant neurological disability. The molecular events associated with BMS are not clearly understood. This study sought to underlie the biological mechanisms associated with BMS. Blood samples obtained from a(More)
Low expression of NR4A gene family members (NR4A1, NR4A3) and 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) genes was demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of subjects evaluated during the pre-disease state of multiple sclerosis (MS-to-be, MS2b), in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) during the very early presentation of(More)
Molecular mechanisms that influence susceptibility to multiple sclerosis are poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood gene expression profiles in nine healthy subjects up to nine years before the onset of multiple sclerosis in comparison with 11 age-, gender-, and origin-matched healthy subjects who remained multiple sclerosis-free, and 31 subjects(More)
Differential expression of apoptotic genes may influence the susceptibility of activated lymphocytes to expand and induce acute relapse and persistent inflammation in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The exact relationship between alterations in apoptotic-related gene expression and clinical disease activity has not been broadly(More)
BACKGROUND   To investigate the role of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration by measuring the levels of cytokines in the aqueous humour. METHODS   Samples of aqueous humour were collected from 34 patients with age-related macular degeneration and 16 age-matched control subjects undergoing cataract surgery. Age-related macular degeneration(More)
The interface between thyroid hormone action and neuropsychiatric function is intricate, and several mechanisms of thyroid hormone uptake into brain tissues, hormone activation, and influences on neurotransmitter generation have been identified. Symptoms of hypothyroidism are nonspecific, whereas those attributed to thyrotoxicosis may be more(More)
PURPOSE To analyze cytokines in the retina and serum in an experimental model of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in mice. METHODS CRAO was induced by laser activation of intravenously injected rose bengal, a photosensitive dye, in 60 C57Bl/6 mice. mRNA and protein levels of macrophage inhibitory protein-2 (MIP-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor(More)
BACKGROUND Glatiramer acetate (GA, Copaxone) has beneficial effects on the clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the exact molecular mechanisms of GA effects are only partially understood. OBJECTIVE To characterized GA molecular effects in RRMS patients within 3 months of treatment by microarray profiling of peripheral(More)
Women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) have unique needs during the preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods. Preconception counseling is essential for women with T1DM to minimize pregnancy risks. The goals of preconception care should be tight glycemic control with a hemoglobin A1c (A1C) < 7 % and as close to 6 % as possible, without significant(More)