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UNLABELLED The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, an RNA-guided nuclease for specific genome editing in vivo, has been adopted in a wide variety of organisms. In contrast, the in vitro application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has rarely been reported. We present here a highly efficient(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), including lifestyle modifying strategies and pharmacological interventions. DATA SOURCES A literature search of PubMed through March 2016 was conducted utilizing the keywords hepatic encephalopathy, ammonia, and cirrhosis All published articles evaluating treatments for HE were considered.(More)
In dynamic covalent synthesis, kinetic traps are perceived as disadvantageous, hindering the system from reaching its thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we present the near-quantitative preparation of tetrahedral cages from simple tritopic precursors using alkyne metathesis. While the cages are the presumed thermodynamic sink, we experimentally demonstrate(More)
The segregation of binary mixtures in a filled rotating double-walled drum is explored by simulations. Based on the characteristics of self-gravity and the centrifugal force, we argue that both percolation and buoyancy effects dominate the segregation process. The simulational results show that up to long enough times the segregation state is controlled by(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi resources in rhizosphere of Chaenomeles speciosa in Xuancheng, Anhui province. METHOD Roots were stained with acid fuchsin and then mounted and observed under a microscope; Spores were extracted from the rhizosphere soil using wet-sieving method. RESULT C. speciosa could be colonized and(More)
We present here hexagonal tiling using hexagonal phenylene-ethynylene and phenylene-butadiynylene macrocycles attached by alkyl ester groups, PEM-C6 and PBM-C8, respectively, or triethylene glycol ester groups, PEM-TEG and PBM-TEG, respectively, at each vertex of the macrocyclic periphery at the liquid/solid interface. In this study, we focused on the(More)
Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi(More)
Ion channels and ion fluxes control many aspects of tissue homeostasis. During oncogenic transformation, critical ion channel functions may be perturbed but conserved tumor specific ion fluxes remain to be defined. Here we used the tumoricidal protein-lipid complex HAMLET as a probe to identify ion fluxes involved in tumor cell death. We show that HAMLET(More)
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