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Local translation of proteins in distal dendrites is thought to support synaptic structural plasticity. We have previously shown that metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) stimulation initiates a phosphorylation cascade, triggering rapid association of some mRNAs with translation machinery near synapses, and leading to protein synthesis. To determine the(More)
Fragile X mental retardation is caused by absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), encoded by the FMR1 gene. There is increasing evidence that FMRP regulates transport and modulates translation of some mRNAs. We studied neurotransmitter-activated synaptic protein synthesis in fmr1-knockout mice. Synaptoneurosomes from(More)
BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause damage to the developing fetus with outcomes including growth deficiency, facial dysmorphology, brain damage, and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Smaller brains in children with FASD have been linked both with reduced cell proliferation in the developing CNS and with apoptotic cell loss of postmitotic(More)
OBJECTIVE Morphological indications of abnormal circuitry have been detected in the prefrontal neuropil of patients with schizophrenia. The authors tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with smaller dendritic field size in layer V pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. METHOD Tissue from area 10 with a mean postmortem interval of 5.7(More)
This study examined experience effects upon the formation of multiple synaptic contacts among individual dendritic and axonal elements. Axonal boutons and dendritic spines forming contacts with more than one process were assessed within layer IV of the visual cortex in adult rats following 60 days of housing in standard laboratory cages (IC) or in complex(More)
We recently reported that rats exposed to PCBs and MeHg during development were impaired on the rotating rod, a test of balance and coordination that is often indicative of cerebellar damage. In addition, developmental PCB exposure is known to dramatically reduce circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, which may have a negative impact on cerebellar(More)
Prenatal exposure to alcohol in humans can result in a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Of these deficits, cognitive impairments are among the most debilitating and long-lasting. Specifically, cognitive impairments in executive functioning suggest damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Several external(More)
Twenty days of complex motor skill training in adult rats was previously demonstrated to rehabilitate motor performance deficits induced by binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats. This follow-up study evaluated morphological plasticity in the paramedian lobule of the cerebellum (PML) using the same treatment and training regimens. On postnatal days (PD)(More)
Long-lasting changes in synaptic functions after an appropriate stimulus require altered protein expression at the synapse. To restrict changes in protein composition to activated synapses, proteins may be synthesized locally as a result of transmitter receptor-triggered signaling pathways. Second messenger-controlled mechanisms that affect mRNA translation(More)
Developmental alcohol exposure can permanently alter brain structures and produce functional impairments in many aspects of behavior, including learning and memory. This study evaluates the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the implications of such exposure for hippocampus-dependent(More)