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Local translation of proteins in distal dendrites is thought to support synaptic structural plasticity. We have previously shown that metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) stimulation initiates a phosphorylation cascade, triggering rapid association of some mRNAs with translation machinery near synapses, and leading to protein synthesis. To determine the(More)
This study examined experience effects upon the formation of multiple synaptic contacts among individual dendritic and axonal elements. Axonal boutons and dendritic spines forming contacts with more than one process were assessed within layer IV of the visual cortex in adult rats following 60 days of housing in standard laboratory cages (IC) or in complex(More)
Fragile X mental retardation is caused by absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), encoded by the FMR1 gene. There is increasing evidence that FMRP regulates transport and modulates translation of some mRNAs. We studied neurotransmitter-activated synaptic protein synthesis in fmr1-knockout mice. Synaptoneurosomes from(More)
OBJECTIVE Morphological indications of abnormal circuitry have been detected in the prefrontal neuropil of patients with schizophrenia. The authors tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with smaller dendritic field size in layer V pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. METHOD Tissue from area 10 with a mean postmortem interval of 5.7(More)
Prenatal exposure to alcohol in humans can result in a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Of these deficits, cognitive impairments are among the most debilitating and long-lasting. Specifically, cognitive impairments in executive functioning suggest damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Several external(More)
We recently reported that rats exposed to PCBs and MeHg during development were impaired on the rotating rod, a test of balance and coordination that is often indicative of cerebellar damage. In addition, developmental PCB exposure is known to dramatically reduce circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, which may have a negative impact on cerebellar(More)
Neonatal alcohol exposure impairs cognition and learning in adulthood and permanently damages the hippocampus. Wheel running (WR) improves hippocampus-associated learning and memory and increases the genesis and survival of newly generated neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. WR significantly increases proliferation of newly generated dentate granule(More)
Long-lasting changes in synaptic functions after an appropriate stimulus require altered protein expression at the synapse. To restrict changes in protein composition to activated synapses, proteins may be synthesized locally as a result of transmitter receptor-triggered signaling pathways. Second messenger-controlled mechanisms that affect mRNA translation(More)
Among the deficits associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), cognitive impairments are the most debilitating and permanent. These impairments, including deficits in goal-directed behavior, attention, temporal planning, and other executive functions, could result from damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area that has not been studied sufficiently(More)
Protein synthesis occurs in neuronal dendrites, often near synapses. Polyribosomal aggregates often appear in dendritic spines, particularly during development. Polyribosomal aggregates in spines increase during experience-dependent synaptogenesis, e.g., in rats in a complex environment. Some protein synthesis appears to be regulated directly by synaptic(More)