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Research on fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (also known as quantum dots or qdots) has evolved over the past two decades from electronic materials science to biological applications. We review current approaches to the synthesis, solubilization, and functionalization of qdots and their applications to cell and animal biology. Recent examples of their(More)
Luciferases, which have seen expansive employment as reporter genes in biological research, could also be used in applications where the protein itself is conjugated to ligands to create probes that are appropriate for use in small animal imaging. As the bioluminescence activity of commonly used luciferases is too labile in serum to permit this application,(More)
In this work we analyze the behavior on a company-internal social network site to determine which interaction patterns signal closeness between colleagues. Regression analysis suggests that employee behavior on social network sites (SNSs) reveals information about both professional and personal closeness. While some factors are predictive of general(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are being used at an increasing rate in the treatment of cancer, with current efforts focused on developing engineered antibodies that exhibit optimal biodistribution profiles for imaging and/or radioimmunotherapy. We recently developed the single-chain Fv-Fc (scFv-Fc) mAb, which consists of a single-chain antibody Fv fragment(More)
Teams of specialized experts, such as emergency management planning teams, while making decisions need to efficiently pool domain-specific knowledge, synthesize relevant information, and keep track of collaborators activities at a low interaction cost. This requires tools that allow monitoring both low-level information (e.g., individual actions and(More)
A novel engineered antibody fragment (VL-VH-CH3, or "minibody") with bivalent binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was produced by genetic fusion of a T84.66 (anti-CEA) single-chain antibody (scFv) to the human IgG1 CH3 domain. Two designs for the connecting peptide were evaluated. In the T84.66/212 LD minibody, a two-amino acid linker (generated by(More)
Virus entry into cells is typically initiated by binding of virally encoded envelope proteins to specific cell surface receptors. Studying infectivity of lentivirus pseudotypes lacking envelope binding, we still observed high infectivity for some cell types. On further investigation, we discovered that this infectivity is conferred by the soluble bovine(More)
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a 180 kDa glycoprotein expressed on the surface of normal and malignant human colon. The structure of CEA has seven predicted Ig-like domains (N-A1-B1-A2-B2-A3-B3) that are encoded by separate exons and contain independent epitopes that are recognized by monoclonal antibodies. The N-domain mediates homotypic cell adhesion(More)
An anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody fragment, the anti-CEA diabody, was fused to the bioluminescence enzyme Renilla luciferase (RLuc) to generate a novel optical imaging probe. Native RLuc or one of two stabilized variants (RLucC124A, RLuc8) was used as the bioluminescent moiety. A bioluminescence ELISA showed that diabody-luciferase could(More)
Three analytic indicators were used to compare five members of a monoclonal antibody (Mab) family. The cognates consisted of the genetically engineered intact chimeric IgGI (cT84.66) and related engineered fragments [scFv, diabody, minibody, F(ab')2] reactive against the same epitope of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). All analyses were based on(More)