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Recent work on captive flying squirrels has demonstrated a novel degree of flexibility in the use of different orientation cues. In the present study, we examine to what extent this flexibility is present in a free-ranging population of another tree squirrel species, the fox squirrel. We trained squirrels to a rewarded location within a square array of four(More)
The brain type isozyme of creatine kinase (CKB) has proven to be a useful early marker for the action of steroid and other hormones. An increase in the steady state level of mRNA for CKB was found within 30 min after estrogen stimulation of immature rat uteri. Cycloheximide treatment did not inhibit CKB induction. In order to study the molecular mechanism(More)
The phenomenon of mutual annihilation of action between 17beta estradiol (E(2)) and a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), previously described in prepubertal rat diaphysis, epiphysis and uterus, has been investigated in ROS 17/2.8 rat osteoblastic cells and in transiently co-transfected cells in culture. In ROS 17/2.8 cells, the estrogen-induced(More)
We have reported that pretreatment with 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3(1, 25) up-regulates responsiveness and sensitivity to 17 beta estradiol (E2) in osteoblast-like cells, as measured by parallel stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and the specific activity of creatine kinase BB (CK). Increased responsiveness was correlated with increased E2 receptor(More)
We have compared the cell and tissue selective estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of tamoxifen, raloxifene, ICI 164,384 and a permanently ionized derivative of tamoxifen--tamoxifen methiodide (TMI). This non-steroidal antiestrogen has limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier and is therefore less likely to cause the central nervous system(More)
Primary T cell activation and effector cell differentiation is required for rejection of allogeneic grafts in naïve recipients. It has become evident, that mitochondria play an important role for T cell activation. Expression of several mitochondrial proteins such as TCAIM (T cell activation inhibitor, mitochondrial) is down-regulated upon T cell receptor(More)
Fox squirrels have an impressive ability to remember the location of stored food. In doing so, they combine information from landmarks of different types. We define a Bayesian model that indicates how an ideal observer would optimally integrate landmark cues, and fit this model to the decisions made by squirrels in a spatial memory task. The resulting model(More)
Pretreatment with 1 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25), or non-hypercalcemic Vitamin D analogs, upregulated the response of creatine kinase (CK) to 17beta-estradiol (30 nM E(2)), raloxifene (3000 nM RAL) or dihydrotestosterone (300 nM DHT) in primary human bone cells. Previously, we reported that these osteoblast-like cells responded to gonadal steroids(More)
We have demonstrated previously that rat adipose tissue showed sex and depot-specific responses to gonadal steroids. The epididymal fat pad in males responded exclusively to androgens by increased specific activity of the brain type isozyme of creatine kinase (CK). In females, the parametrial adipose tissue responded exclusively to estrogens. The present(More)
We have demonstrated previously that daily treatments for 3 days with the so-called "non-hypercalcemic" analogs of 1alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells, stimulate the specific activity of creatine kinase BB (CK), and that such treatment with these analogs followed by a single treatment with gonadal steroids, upregulates(More)