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Mitochondria have paradoxical functions within cells. Essential providers of energy for cellular survival, they are also harbingers of cell death (apoptosis). Mitochondria exhibit remarkable dynamics, undergoing fission, fusion, and reticular expansion. Both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encode vital sets of proteins which, when incorporated into(More)
Regular exercise leads to systemic metabolic benefits, which require remodeling of energy resources in skeletal muscle. During acute exercise, the increase in energy demands initiate mitochondrial biogenesis, orchestrated by the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Much less is known about the(More)
Metabolic homeostasis is essential for cellular survival and proper tissue function. Multi-systemic metabolic regulation is therefore vital for good health. A number of tissues have the task of maintaining appropriate metabolism, and skeletal muscle is the most abundant of them. Muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity and is able to rapidly adapt to(More)
While the formation of myelin by oligodendrocytes is critical for the function of the central nervous system, the molecular mechanism controlling oligodendrocyte differentiation remains largely unknown. Here we identify G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) as an inhibitor of late-stage oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. GPR37 is enriched in(More)
Alterations in skeletal muscle contractile activity necessitate an efficient remodeling mechanism. In particular, mitochondrial turnover is essential for tissue homeostasis during muscle adaptations to chronic use and disuse. While mitochondrial biogenesis appears to be largely governed by the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator(More)
Skeletal muscle undergoes remarkable adaptations in response to chronic decreases in contractile activity, such as a loss of muscle mass, decreases in both mitochondrial content and function, as well as the activation of apoptosis. Although these adaptations are well known, questions remain regarding the signaling pathways that mediated these changes.(More)
An increase in the production of reactive oxygen species occurs with muscle disuse, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and conditions that arise with senescence. The resulting oxidative stress is associated with apoptosis-related myopathies. Recent research has suggested that chronic exercise is protective against mitochondrially mediated programmed cell death. To(More)
The merits of exercise on muscle health and well-being are numerous and well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying the robust adaptations induced by exercise, particularly on mitochondria, are less clear and much sought after. Recently, an evolutionary conserved cellular recycling mechanism known as autophagy has been implicated in the adaptations(More)
Physical activity has been recently documented to play a fundamental physiological role in the regulation of autophagy in several tissues. It has also been reported that autophagy is required for exercise itself and for training-induced adaptations in glucose homeostasis. These autophagy-mediated metabolic improvements are thought to be largely dependent on(More)
Exercise is a well-known stimulus for the expansion of the mitochondrial pool within skeletal muscle. Mitochondria have a remarkable ability to remodel their networks and can respond to an array of signaling stimuli following contractile activity to adapt to the metabolic demands of the tissue, synthesizing proteins to expand the mitochondrial reticulum. In(More)