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The deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are believed to result, at least in part, from the neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid peptides, a set of 39-43 amino acid fragments derived proteolytically from beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP also is cleaved intracytoplasmically at Asp-664 to generate a second cytotoxic peptide, APP-C31, but(More)
Neurogenesis, which may contribute to the ability of the adult brain to function normally and adapt to disease, nevertheless declines with advancing age. Adult neurogenesis can be enhanced by administration of growth factors, but whether the aged brain remains responsive to these factors is unknown. We compared the effects of intracerebroventricular(More)
There is no satisfactory treatment for Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder that produces chorea, dementia, and death. One potential treatment strategy involves the replacement of dead neurons by stimulating the proliferation of endogenous neuronal precursors (neurogenesis) and their migration into damaged regions of the brain.(More)
Cell replacement therapy may have the potential to promote brain repair and recovery after stroke. To compare how focal cerebral ischemia affects the entry, migration, and phenotypic features of neural precursor cells transplanted by different routes, we administered neuronal precursors from embryonic cerebral cortex of green fluorescent protein(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in selective neuronal loss and dysfunction in the striatum and cortex. The molecular pathways leading to the selectivity of neuronal cell death in HD are poorly understood. Proteolytic processing of full-length mutant huntingtin (Htt) and subsequent events(More)
Neurogenesis persists in the adult brain, where it may contribute to repair and recovery after injury, but the lack of methods for noninvasive stimulation of cerebral neurogenesis limits its potential for clinical application. We report that intranasal administration of either fibroblast growth factor-2 or heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth(More)
The capsaicin receptor (VR1, TRPV1) is a ligand-gated ion channel predominantly expressed in peripheral nociceptors and activated by multiple noxious stimuli including products of inflammation. A 5'-splice variant (VR.5'sv) of TRPV1 has been previously isolated and found to be insensitive to noxious stimuli. We report in this study that coexpression of(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a polyglutamine (polyQ) disorder characterized by specific degeneration of cerebellar, brainstem, and retinal neurons. Although they share little sequence homology, proteins implicated in polyQ disorders have common properties beyond their characteristic polyQ tract. These include the production of proteolytic(More)
Multistep proteolytic mechanisms are essential for converting pro-protein precursors into active peptide neurotransmitters and hormones. Cysteine proteases have been implicated in the processing of proenkephalin and other neuropeptide precursors. Although the papain family of cysteine proteases has been considered the primary proteases of the lysosomal(More)
Neuroglobin (Ngb), a recently discovered O2-binding heme protein related to hemoglobin and myoglobin, protects neurons from hypoxic-ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo. In immunostained mouse brain sections, we found widespread expression of Ngb protein in neurons, but not astrocytes, of several brain regions that are prominently involved in age-related(More)