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Movement is the behavioral output of neuronal activity in the spinal cord. Motor neurons are grouped into motor neuron pools, the functional units innervating individual muscles. Here we establish an anatomical rabies virus-based connectivity assay in early postnatal mice. We employ it to study the connectivity scheme of premotor neurons, the neuronal(More)
The conditional expression of transgenes at high levels in sparse and specific populations of neurons is important for high-resolution optogenetic analyses of neuronal circuits. We explored two complementary methods, viral gene delivery and the iTet-Off system, to express transgenes in the brain of zebrafish. High-level gene expression in neurons was(More)
Walking is a key motor behaviour of limbed animals, executed by contraction of functionally antagonistic muscle groups during swing and stance phases. Nevertheless, neuronal circuits regulating the activation of antagonistic extensor-flexor muscles remain poorly understood. Here we use monosynaptically restricted trans-synaptic viruses to elucidate premotor(More)
The assembly of neuronal circuits involved in locomotor control in the mammalian spinal cord is influenced by genetic programs specifying four ventral (V) interneuron populations (V0-V3). In this issue of Neuron, Crone et al. and Zhang et al. make use of genetic tools to map connectivity patterns and to abolish the function of V2a and V3 interneurons. The(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to estimate obesity parameters: waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI), and serum adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and their associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine, and(More)
The aim of this study was to estimate associations between inflammatory markers and obesity indices in normo- and hypertensive subjects. 65 obese adult subjects were divided into two groups: (A) of hypertensives (n = 54) and (B) of normotensives (n = 11). Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the roles of the WWOX tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes in bladder tumor carcinogenesis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the status of WWOX promoter methylation (using MethylScreen™ technology) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in papillary urothelial(More)
The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a treatment option with proved effectiveness especially in drug resist depression. It is used in functional brain mapping before neurosurgery operations and diagnostic of corticospinal tract transmission. Many studies are performed to evaluate rTMS using in treatment of obsessive - compulsive disorder,(More)
What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that(More)