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BACKGROUND Hydrocele and elephantiasis are 2 clinically very diverse and often mutually exclusive chronic manifestations of human bancroftian filariasis. Plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a major angiogenic factor, and tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) that regulate host inflammation have been associated with development of chronic filariasis,(More)
INTRODUCTION The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with recent cholera outbreaks in Haiti and Zimbabwe, as well as with cholera endemicity in countries throughout Asia and Africa, make a compelling case for supplementary cholera control measures in addition to existing interventions. Clinical trials conducted in Kolkata, India, have led to(More)
BACKGROUND Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients' costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India. METHODS Following a(More)
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