Learn More
Parkinson's disease (PD) was first described by James Parkinson in 1817. He noted the complex nature of this condition and that non-motor symptoms (NMS) underpinned the classic motor symptoms of PD. The concept of what PD is has therefore undergone substantial changes and it is now recognised that PD is a combined motor and non-motor syndrome and NMS are(More)
Non motor symptoms (NMS) represent a significant burden in Parkinson's disease (PD) with numerous studies highlighting the importance of NMS both in "pre-motor" phase of PD as well as throughout the course of disease. In part this has led the international Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (IPMDS) task force to attempt a re-definition of PD(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated primarily with dopamine agonist (DA) use. Comparative surveys of clinical occurrence of impulse control behaviours on longer acting/transdermal DA therapy across age ranges are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of ICDs in PD patients(More)
BACKGROUND Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) affect virtually every patient, yet they are under-recognized and under-treated. The NMS Questionnaire (NMSQuest) is a validated 30-item self-assessment instrument useful for NMS screening in clinic. OBJECTIVE Development of a straight forward grading classification of the burden of non-motor(More)
Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are a key component of Parkinson's disease (PD). A range of NMS, most notably impaired sense of smell, sleep dysfunction, and dysautonomia are present from the 'pre-motor' phase to the final palliative stage. Theories as to the pathogenesis of PD such as those proposed by Braak and others also support the occurrence of NMS in PD(More)
Pain is a key unmet need and a major aspect of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). No specific validated scales exist to identify and grade the various types of pain in PD. We report an international, cross-sectional, open, multicenter, one-point-in-time evaluation with retest study of the first PD-specific pain scale, the King's PD Pain Scale.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Non-motor symptoms (NMSs) occurring at an early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) may impair quality of life more than motor symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the severity of overall NMS profile and burden of NMSs in early PD patients, treated (time since confirmed diagnosis of 5 years or less) or drug naive (DN). METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated that, contrary to common perception non-motor symptoms (NMS) occur and may dominate early and untreated stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE The aim of this ongoing study was to describe the overall NMS profile and burden in drug naïve PD patients (DNPD) compared to a group of long-term PD patients(More)
We have determined the complete sequence of the translation elongation factor EF1 subunit alpha (EF1 alpha) mRNA of zebrafish, and the 3'-untranslated sequence of EF1 alpha mRNA of halibut. The 5'-untranslated leader sequence of the EF1 alpha mRNA starts with a polypyrimidine tract. This feature is shared with the mRNAs for ribosomal proteins, where it(More)