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The search for understanding the interactions of nanosized materials with living organisms is leading to the rapid development of key applications, including improved drug delivery by targeting nanoparticles, and resolution of the potential threat of nanotechnological devices to organisms and the environment. Unless they are specifically designed to avoid(More)
Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are increasingly being used as a catalyst in the automotive industry. Consequently, increasing amounts of CeO2 NPs are expected to enter the environment where their fate in and potential impacts are unknown. In this paper we describe the fate and effects of CeO2 NPs of three different sizes (14, 20, and 29 nm) in(More)
Nanoparticles enter cells through active processes, thanks to their capability of interacting with the cellular machinery. The protein layer (corona) that forms on their surface once nanoparticles are in contact with biological fluids, such as the cell serum, mediates the interactions with cells in situ. As a consequence of this, here we show that the same(More)
Nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for drugs, genes and therapies to treat various diseases. Many strategies have been developed to target nanomaterials to specific or over-expressed receptors in diseased cells, and these typically involve functionalizing the surface of nanoparticles with proteins, antibodies or other biomolecules. Here, we show(More)
Nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, creating innovative solutions and therapies for currently untreatable diseases, and providing new tools for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. In order to optimize the efficacy of nanoparticle (NP) delivery to cells, it is(More)
BACKGROUND Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial(More)
Nanoparticles are considered a primary vehicle for targeted therapies because they can pass biological barriers and enter and distribute within cells by energy-dependent pathways. So far, most studies have shown that nanoparticle properties, such as size and surface, can influence how cells internalize nanoparticles. Here, we show that uptake of(More)
Graphing graphene: Because the naming of graphene-based materials (GBMs) has led to confusion and inconsistency, a classification approach is necessary. Three physical-chemical properties of GBMs have been defined by the GRAPHENE Flagship Project of the European Union for the unequivocal classification of these materials (see grid).
Nanoparticles are of an appropriate size to interact with cells, and are likely to use a range of cellular machinery for internalisation and trafficking to various sub-cellular compartments. It is now understood that once in contact with biological fluids, the nanoparticle surface gets covered by a highly specific layer of proteins, forming the nanoparticle(More)