Anna Rose Childress

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OBJECTIVE Since signals for cocaine induce limbic brain activation in animals and cocaine craving in humans, the objective of this study was to test whether limbic activation occurs during cue-induced craving in humans. METHOD Using positron emission tomography, the researchers measured relative regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in limbic and comparison(More)
BACKGROUND Structural deficiencies within limbic and prefrontal regions may contribute to the characteristic drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors that prevail in persons dependent on cocaine. To date, a focal structural analysis of the brains of cocaine patients has not been undertaken. METHODS We used voxel based morphometry in conjunction with(More)
BACKGROUND In functional brain imaging studies, exposure to cues related to cocaine, opiates, and alcohol in dependent individuals is associated with activation of the anterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Craving for these substances positively correlates with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex,(More)
TheGuilty Knowledge Test (GKT) has been used extensively to model deception. An association between the brain evoked response potentials and lying on the GKT suggests that deception may be associated with changes in other measures of brain activity such as regional blood flow that could be anatomically localized with event-related functional magnetic(More)
Deception is a clinically important behavior with poorly understood neurobiological correlates. Published functional MRI (fMRI) data on the brain activity during deception indicates that, on a multisubject group level, lie is distinguished from truth by increased prefrontal and parietal activity. These findings are theoretically important; however, their(More)
There is a good deal of clinical evidence suggesting that compulsion to resume drug taking is an important part of the addiction syndrome. The symptoms comprising motivation to resume drug use, namely craving and compulsion, have been studied experimentally in human subjects. While much work remains to be done, there is evidence showing that these symptoms(More)
Exposure to cigarette smoking cues can trigger physiological arousal and desire to smoke. The brain substrates of smoking cue-induced craving (CIC) are beginning to be elucidated; however, it has been difficult to study this state independent of the potential contributions of pharmacological withdrawal from nicotine. Pharmacological withdrawal itself may(More)
Subjects with a history of free-basing and smoking cocaine but no history of opiate injections were exposed to three sets of stimuli. They received cocaine-related stimuli in one session, opiate-related stimuli in a second session, and non-drug stimuli on a third occasion. Compared to the opiate and non-drug cues, the cocaine-related events caused reliable(More)
More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate(More)
BACKGROUND The human brain responds to recognizable signals for sex and for rewarding drugs of abuse by activation of limbic reward circuitry. Does the brain respond in similar way to such reward signals even when they are "unseen", i.e., presented in a way that prevents their conscious recognition? Can the brain response to "unseen" reward cues predict the(More)