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OBJECTIVE Since signals for cocaine induce limbic brain activation in animals and cocaine craving in humans, the objective of this study was to test whether limbic activation occurs during cue-induced craving in humans. METHOD Using positron emission tomography, the researchers measured relative regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in limbic and comparison(More)
BACKGROUND In functional brain imaging studies, exposure to cues related to cocaine, opiates, and alcohol in dependent individuals is associated with activation of the anterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Craving for these substances positively correlates with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex,(More)
TheGuilty Knowledge Test (GKT) has been used extensively to model deception. An association between the brain evoked response potentials and lying on the GKT suggests that deception may be associated with changes in other measures of brain activity such as regional blood flow that could be anatomically localized with event-related functional magnetic(More)
Exposure to cigarette smoking cues can trigger physiological arousal and desire to smoke. The brain substrates of smoking cue-induced craving (CIC) are beginning to be elucidated; however, it has been difficult to study this state independent of the potential contributions of pharmacological withdrawal from nicotine. Pharmacological withdrawal itself may(More)
Deception is a clinically important behavior with poorly understood neurobiological correlates. Published functional MRI (fMRI) data on the brain activity during deception indicates that, on a multisubject group level, lie is distinguished from truth by increased prefrontal and parietal activity. These findings are theoretically important; however, their(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI data differ in important respects from the more familiar blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI data and require specific processing strategies. In this paper, we examined several factors that may influence ASL data analysis, including data storage bit resolution, motion correction, preprocessing for cerebral(More)
Subjects with a history of free-basing and smoking cocaine but no history of opiate injections were exposed to three sets of stimuli. They received cocaine-related stimuli in one session, opiate-related stimuli in a second session, and non-drug stimuli on a third occasion. Compared to the opiate and non-drug cues, the cocaine-related events caused reliable(More)
Several learning theory based models propose that substance users may have conditioned reactions to stimuli (cues) associated with substance use and that these reactions may increase the probability of relapse. The conditioned withdrawal, conditioned compensatory response, and appetitive motivational models were evaluated in light of empirical evidence from(More)
BACKGROUND Structural deficiencies within limbic and prefrontal regions may contribute to the characteristic drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors that prevail in persons dependent on cocaine. To date, a focal structural analysis of the brains of cocaine patients has not been undertaken. METHODS We used voxel based morphometry in conjunction with(More)
To explore the multivariate nature of fMRI data and to consider the inter-subject brain response discrepancies, a multivariate and brain response model-free method is fundamentally required. Two such methods are presented in this paper by integrating a machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), and the random effect model. Without any(More)