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Transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitors are at high risk of invasive fungal infection. Understanding how calcineurin inhibitors impair fungal immunity is a key priority for defining risk of infection. Here, we show that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus impairs clearance of the major mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus from the airway, by(More)
BACKGROUND The risk-benefit for utilizing cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) in lung transplantation (LTx) remains debatable. This study compares outcomes after LTx utilizing different CPB strategies - elective CPB vs. off-pump vs. off-pump with unplanned conversion to CPB. METHODS A total of 302 LTx performed over seven yr were divided into three groups:(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary vascular diseases are increasingly recognised as important clinical conditions. Pulmonary hypertension associated with a range of aetiologies is difficult to treat and associated with progressive morbidity and mortality. Current therapies for pulmonary hypertension include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor(More)
Background: Pulmonary vascular diseases are increasingly recognised as important clinical conditions. Pulmonary hypertension associated with a range of aetiologies is difficult to treat and associated with progressive morbidity and mortality. Current therapies for pulmonary hypertension include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor(More)
Pulmonary hypertension is a debilitating disease with no cure. We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ agonists protect the right heart in hypoxia-driven pulmonary hypertension without affecting vascular remodeling. PPARβ/δ is an important receptor in lipid metabolism, athletic performance, and the sensing of(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening systemic fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals that is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. The human serum opsonin, L-ficolin, has been observed to recognize A. fumigatus and could participate in fungal defense. METHODS Using lung epithelial cells, primary human monocyte-derived(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that typically infects the lungs of immunocompromised patients leading to a high mortality. H-Ficolin, an innate immune opsonin, is produced by type II alveolar epithelial cells and could participate in lung defences against infections. Here, we used the human type II alveolar epithelial cell line,(More)
Lung transplantation (LTx) from "extended donor criteria" donors may reduce significantly organ shortage. However, its influence on results remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate retrospectively the results of LTx from donors outside standard criteria: PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg, age over 55 years, and history of smoking > 20 pack-years. Two hundred(More)
BACKGROUND Traditionally, patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are sedated and mechanically ventilated, which increases risk of complications related to immobility and mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and highlight the benefits of a bridge to lung transplant (LTx) using "awake ECMO" support.(More)
RATIONALE Pulmonary aspergillosis is a lethal mold infection in the immunocompromised host. Understanding initial control of infection and how this is altered in the immunocompromised host are key goals for comprehension of the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis. OBJECTIVES To characterize the outcome of human macrophage infection with Aspergillus(More)