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Transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitors are at high risk of invasive fungal infection. Understanding how calcineurin inhibitors impair fungal immunity is a key priority for defining risk of infection. Here, we show that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus impairs clearance of the major mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus from the airway, by(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of interlobar collateral ventilation in patients with severe emphysema to identify factors that may help to predict patients with significant collateral ventilation. METHODS Between April 2002 and August 2003, ex vivo assessment of the lungs 17 consecutive patients with smoking related severe(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening systemic fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals that is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. The human serum opsonin, L-ficolin, has been observed to recognize A. fumigatus and could participate in fungal defense. METHODS Using lung epithelial cells, primary human monocyte-derived(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that typically infects the lungs of immunocompromised patients leading to a high mortality. H-Ficolin, an innate immune opsonin, is produced by type II alveolar epithelial cells and could participate in lung defences against infections. Here, we used the human type II alveolar epithelial cell line,(More)
BACKGROUND The risk-benefit for utilizing cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) in lung transplantation (LTx) remains debatable. This study compares outcomes after LTx utilizing different CPB strategies - elective CPB vs. off-pump vs. off-pump with unplanned conversion to CPB. METHODS A total of 302 LTx performed over seven yr were divided into three groups:(More)
Bronchopleural and broncho-cutaneous fistulas can be problematic after lobectomy for tumors or aspergillomas. Closure of the air leak and treatment of infection are essential to allow the fistula to heal. The initial treatment can usually proceed along standard lines, but if the fistula persists, then treatment can be problematic. This report is the first(More)
BACKGROUND Traditionally, patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are sedated and mechanically ventilated, which increases risk of complications related to immobility and mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and highlight the benefits of a bridge to lung transplant (LTx) using "awake ECMO" support.(More)
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Fungal prophylaxis following lung transplantation is not standardised, with transplant centres utilising a variety of regimens. Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal triazole that requires further investigation within the setting of lung transplantation.(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary vascular diseases are increasingly recognised as important clinical conditions. Pulmonary hypertension associated with a range of aetiologies is difficult to treat and associated with progressive morbidity and mortality. Current therapies for pulmonary hypertension include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a group of diseases which forms a small subset of those with elevated pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension). The recent development of selective pulmonary vasodilator has lead to a substantial resurgence of interest in what have been previously regarded as rare and incurable diseases. This review aims to(More)