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Estrogen receptor (ER) agonists rapidly affect neural plasticity within 1 h, suggesting they play a functional role in learning and memory. However, behavioral learning experiments on such a rapid time scale are lacking. Therefore we investigated whether the ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) could affect(More)
Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is(More)
We reviewed oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and gonadal hormone involvement in various modes of social information processing in mice and rats. Gonadal hormones regulate OT and AVP mediation of social recognition and social learning. Estrogens foster OT-mediated social recognition and the recognition and avoidance of parasitized conspecifics via(More)
Social Recognition is a fundamental skill that forms the basis of behaviors essential to the proper functioning of pair or group living in most social species. We review here various neurobiological and genetic studies that point to an interplay of oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and the gonadal hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in the(More)
While a great deal of research has been performed on the long-term genomic actions of estrogens, their rapid effects and implications for learning and memory are less well characterized. The often conflicting results of estrogenic effects on learning and memory may be due to complex and little understood interactions between genomic and rapid effects. Here,(More)
Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR),(More)
Recently, oestrogen receptors (ERs) have been implicated in rapid learning processes. We have previously shown that 17β-estradiol, ERα and ERβ agonists can improve learning within 40 min of drug administration in mice. However, oestrogen action at the classical receptors may only in part explain these rapid learning effects. Chronic treatment of a G-protein(More)
Much research on oestrogens has focused on their long-term action, exerting behavioural effects within hours to days through gene transcription. Oestrogens also affect behaviour on a much shorter time scale. These rapid effects are assumed to occur through cell signalling and can elicit a behavioural effect as early as 15 min after treatment. These effects(More)
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates emotion, stress, memory and cognition through the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 ) receptor. To test the role of CB1 signaling in social anxiety and memory, we utilized a genetic knockout (KO) and a pharmacological approach. Specifically, we assessed the effects of a constitutive KO of CB1 receptors (CB1 KOs) and systemic(More)
The biological equivalency of ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3) has been debated; several comparisons have appeared in the adult literature but are scarce in pediatrics. The objective of this study was to compare increases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and attainment of 50 and 75 mol/L status cutoffs following 3 mo of(More)