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Estrogen receptor (ER) agonists rapidly affect neural plasticity within 1 h, suggesting they play a functional role in learning and memory. However, behavioral learning experiments on such a rapid time scale are lacking. Therefore we investigated whether the ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) could affect(More)
Arctic charr, a highly plastic salmonid that inhabits the circumpolar region, colonized its current environment after the last glaciation. Recent colonization limits the capacity of many techniques to define and characterize constituent populations. As a novel approach, we used the major histocompatibility (MH) class IIα gene polymorphism as a marker that(More)
While a great deal of research has been performed on the long-term genomic actions of estrogens, their rapid effects and implications for learning and memory are less well characterized. The often conflicting results of estrogenic effects on learning and memory may be due to complex and little understood interactions between genomic and rapid effects. Here,(More)
Social Recognition is a fundamental skill that forms the basis of behaviors essential to the proper functioning of pair or group living in most social species. We review here various neurobiological and genetic studies that point to an interplay of oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and the gonadal hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in the(More)
We reviewed oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and gonadal hormone involvement in various modes of social information processing in mice and rats. Gonadal hormones regulate OT and AVP mediation of social recognition and social learning. Estrogens foster OT-mediated social recognition and the recognition and avoidance of parasitized conspecifics via(More)
Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is(More)
Current thought envisions dopamine neurons conveying the reinforcing effect of the unconditioned stimulus during associative learning to the axons of Drosophila mushroom body Kenyon cells for normal olfactory learning. Here, we show using functional GFP reconstitution experiments that Kenyon cells and dopamine neurons from axoaxonic reciprocal synapses. The(More)
β3-Adrenergic receptors (β3ARs) negatively regulate β-adrenergic signaling via nitric oxide and are dependent on the adipokine leptin for normal expression in adipocytes, thus making β3AR an attractive candidate for cross-talk with leptin in the heart. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that cardiac β3AR expression and function are dependent on leptin(More)
Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR),(More)