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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease with genetic (70%) and environmental (30%) causes. Among the genetic factors are genes associated with a family history of the disease (familial AD, FAD) and sporadic AD (SAD). The genes: APP (amyloid precursor protein), PSEN1 (Presenilin 1) and PSEN2 (Presenilin 2) are responsible for the presence of(More)
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) was first described almost 200 years ago, it remains an incurable disease with a cause that is not fully understood. Nowadays it is known that disturbances in the structure of pathological proteins in PD can be caused by more than environmental and genetic factors. Despite numerous debates and controversies in the(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, of which patomechanizm entirely is not clear. In the picture neuropathologically there is observed degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons, but also noradrenergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in patients with PD. It is believed, that causes of PD are both(More)
Epinephrine (E) and sympathetic nerve stimulation were described by Thomas Renton Elliott in 1905 for the first time. Dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), E, and serotonin (5-HT) belong to the classic biogenic amines (or monoamines). Parkinson's disease (PD) is among the diseases in which it has been established that catecholamines may account for the(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor and its elevation is established in overt hypothyroidism. Since some authors suggest that chronic autoimmune thyroiditis per se may be considered as a novel risk factor of atherosclerosis independent of thyroid function, the analysis of classical cardiovascular risk factors might be(More)
A Committee of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) recently completed an up to date revision of Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer [1]. The publication is voluminous with some 100 different recommendations, each of which is supported by summaries of the evidence available in the literature. This lecture(More)
The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate carotid hemodynamic variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The study group consisted of 31 females with HT on levothyroxine (L-T4) and 26 euthyroid women with HT without L-T4 matched for age and body mass index (BMI) as controls. Carotid intima-media(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. Alzheimer's disease model PS/APP mice show a markedly accelerated accumulation of Aβ, which may lead to apoptosis induction e.g. in cells expressing wild-type p53. The TP53 gene is found to be the most frequently mutated gene in human tumour cells. There is accumulating evidence(More)
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear, but mutations in PRKN have provided some biological insights. The role of PRKN mutations and other genetic variation in determining the clinical features of PD remains unresolved. The aim of the study was to analyze PRKN mutations in PD and controls in the Polish population and to try to correlate(More)
Knowledge on the genetics of movement disorders has advanced significantly in recent years. It is now recognized that disorders of the basal ganglia have genetic basis and it is suggested that molecular genetic data will provide clues to the pathophysiology of normal and abnormal motor control. Progress in molecular genetic studies, leading to the detection(More)
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