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Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in(More)
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight, the potato disease that precipitated the Irish famines in 1846 and 1847. It represents a reemerging threat to potato production and is one of >70 species that are arguably the most devastating pathogens of dicotyledonous plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular bases of pathogenicity(More)
A potato cysteine protease (cyp) cDNA expressed at an early stage of an incompatible interaction with Phytophthora infestans was isolated. Both the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences are highly homologous to those of a tomato cysteine protease, CYP1. Striking protein similarity to all known cathepsins in animals, particularly cathepsin K, was also(More)
Current identification methods for the soft rot erwinias are both imprecise and time-consuming. We have used the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) to aid in their identification. Analysis by ITS-PCR and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism was found to be a simple, precise, and rapid method compared to current molecular and phenotypic(More)
Bacterial, oomycete and fungal plant pathogens establish disease by translocation of effector proteins into host cells, where they may directly manipulate host innate immunity. In bacteria, translocation is through the type III secretion system, but analogous processes for effector delivery are uncharacterized in fungi and oomycetes. Here we report(More)
Much of the pathogenic success of Phytophthora infestans, the potato and tomato late blight agent, relies on its ability to generate from mycelia large amounts of sporangia, which release zoospores that encyst and form infection structures. To better understand these stages, Affymetrix GeneChips based on 15,650 unigenes were designed and used to profile the(More)
A potato gene encoding a putative WRKY protein was isolated from a cDNA library enriched by suppression subtractive hybridization for sequences upregulated 1 h postinoculation with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. The cDNA encodes a putative polypeptide of 172 amino acids, containing a single WRKY domain with a zinc finger motif and preceded by a(More)
Phytophthora infestans, the organism responsible for the Irish famine, causes late blight, a re-emerging disease of potato and tomato. Little is known about the molecular evolution of P. infestans genes. To identify candidate effector genes (virulence or avirulence genes) that may have co-evolved with the host, we mined expressed sequence tag (EST) data(More)
The oomycete potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and the apicomplexan malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum translocate effector proteins inside host cells, presumably to the benefit of the pathogen or parasite. Many oomycete candidate secreted effector proteins possess a peptide domain with the core conserved motif, RxLR, located near the(More)
The soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi are important pathogens of potato and other crops. However, the taxonomy of these pathogens, particularly at subspecies level, is unclear. An investigation using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting was undertaken to determine the taxonomic relationships within this(More)