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We have developed an efficient method to quantify cell-to-cell infection with single-cycle, replication dependent reporter vectors. This system was used to examine the mechanisms of infection with HTLV-1 and HIV-1 vectors in lymphocyte cell lines. Effector cells transfected with reporter vector, packaging vector, and Env expression plasmid produced(More)
Nanotechnology is proven to provide certain benefits in drug delivery by improving solubility, increasing uptake to target sites and changing pharmacokinetics profiles of traditional drugs. Since properties of many materials change tremendously at the nanoscale levels, nanotechnology is also being explored in various industrial applications. As such,(More)
Tetherin is part of the cellular innate immunity and impedes cell-free transmission of viruses that bud from the plasma membrane by retaining them on the cell surface. Some viruses have evolved activities in different proteins such as Vpu (HIV-1), K-protein (KSHV), Nef (SIV) or Env (HIV-2) to downregulate tetherin and overcome its restriction. We found that(More)
Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of(More)
Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein mediates binding of the virus to its receptor on the surface of target cells and subsequent fusion of virus and cell membranes. To better understand the mechanisms that control HTLV-1 Env trafficking and activity, we have examined two protein-protein interaction motifs in the cytoplasmic(More)
We used replication-dependent retroviral vectors to identify cell surface antigens involved in the cell-to-cell transmission of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Jurkat T cells and selected several IgM MAbs that strongly inhibited HTLV-1 but not human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)(More)
The first human retrovirus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), was discovered 30 years ago. Despite intensive study, the cell surface molecules involved in virus entry have only been identified over the past few years. Three molecules form the receptor complex for HTLV-1: glucose transporter 1, neuropilin 1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Another(More)
Nanoparticle interactions with various components of the immune system are determined by their physicochemical properties such as size, charge, hydrophobicity and shape. Nanoparticles can be engineered to either specifically target the immune system or to avoid immune recognition. Nevertheless, identifying their unintended impacts on the immune system and(More)
AIM Disseminated intravascular coagulation is an increasing concern for certain types of engineered nanomaterials. Recent studies have shed some light on the nanoparticle physicochemical properties contributing to this toxicity; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Leukocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) is a key factor contributing to the(More)