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BACKGROUND We previously showed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) RNA polymerase L protein formulated in stable nucleic acid-lipid particles (SNALPs) completely protected guineapigs when administered shortly after a lethal ZEBOV challenge. Although rodent models of ZEBOV infection are useful for screening(More)
The induction of cytokine synthesis by flagellin is mediated by a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) signaling pathway. Although flagellin activation of the IL-1R-associated kinase and induction of TNF-alpha synthesis are dependent on TLR5 and not TLR4, we have found that flagellin stimulates NO in macrophages via a pathway that requires TLR5 and TLR4. Flagellin(More)
The mechanisms of Ebola (EBOV) pathogenesis are only partially understood, but the dysregulation of normal host immune responses (including destruction of lymphocytes, increases in circulating cytokine levels, and development of coagulation abnormalities) is thought to play a major role. Accumulating evidence suggests that much of the observed pathology is(More)
Ebolavirus disease causes high mortality, and the current outbreak has spread unabated through West Africa. Human adenovirus type 5 vectors (rAd5) encoding ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) generate protective immunity against acute lethal Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) challenge in macaques, but fail to protect animals immune to Ad5, suggesting natural Ad5 exposure(More)
Vaccine-induced immunity to Ebola virus infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs) is marked by potent antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses; however, the immune mechanism of protection remains unknown. Here we define the immune basis of protection conferred by a highly protective recombinant adenovirus virus serotype 5 (rAd5) encoding Ebola(More)
Flagella are locomotive organelles present on a wide range of bacteria and are important for the pathogenesis of many species. Cells of the innate immune system lack memory per se, but recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through a family of type I membrane receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Flagellin, the major(More)
There is a clear need for novel, effective therapeutic approaches to hemorrhagic fever due to filoviruses. Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever is associated with robust interferon (IFN)-α production, with plasma concentrations of IFN-α that greatly (60- to 100-fold) exceed those seen in other viral infections, but little IFN-β production. While all of the type I(More)
There is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis of human ebolavirus infections and no reported human cases acquired by the aerosol route. There is a threat of ebolavirus as an aerosolized biological weapon, and this study evaluated the pathogenesis of aerosol infection in 18 rhesus macaques. Important and unique findings include early infection of the(More)
Lassa virus (LASV) is a significant human pathogen that is endemic to several countries in West Africa. Infection with LASV leads to the development of hemorrhagic fever in a significant number of cases, and it is estimated that thousands die each year from the disease. Little is known about the complex immune mechanisms governing the response to LASV or(More)
Lassa virus and Marburg virus are two causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever. Their diagnosis is difficult because patients infected with either pathogen present similar nonspecific symptoms early after infection. Current diagnostic tests are based on detecting viral proteins or nucleic acids in the blood, but these cannot be found during the early(More)