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T he Antarctic Treaty System, acknowledged as a successful model of cooperative regulation of one of the globe’s largest commons ( 1), is under substantial pressure. Concerns have been raised about increased stress on Antarctic systems from global environmental change and growing interest in the region’s resources ( 2, 3). Although policy-makers may(More)
There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has(More)
To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at(More)
Fasting glucose is associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease and is tightly regulated despite considerable variation in quantity, type, and timing of food intake. In pregnancy, maternal fasting glucose concentration is an important determinant of offspring birth weight. The key determinant of fasting glucose is the enzyme(More)
FMR1 premutations are known to be associated with premature ovarian failure (POF), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We present evidence for a nonlinear association between menopause age and premutation size suggesting that premutations in the mid-size range are at greatest risk for POF, while larger premutations are at lower risk.
BACKGROUND It is recognized that FMR1 premutation expansions are associated with premature ovarian failure (POF), but the role of smaller repeats at the boundary of premutation and normal is less clear. METHODS We have therefore investigated the incidence of these intermediate sized FMR1 CGG repeats (35-58 repeats) in a series of 366 women ascertained(More)
BACKGROUND A polymorphism in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in case-control studies. We aimed to estimate associations of the marker rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism with fasting glucose, lipids, diabetes prevalence and complications in an older general population. METHODS In total, 944(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key inflammatory cytokine, signalling to most tissues by binding to a soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), making a complex with gp130. We used 1273 subjects (mean age 68 years) from the InCHIANTI Italian cohort to study common variation in the IL-6r locus and associations with interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6r), IL-6, gp130 and a battery(More)
BACKGROUND A common variant at chromosome 9p21 (tagged by the rs1333049 or rs10757278 single-nucleotide polymorphism) is strongly associated with myocardial infarction and major arterial aneurysms. An association with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was also reported in a sample younger than 75 years, but this disappeared on removal of respondents with a(More)
Early menopause (EM) affects up to 10% of the female population, reducing reproductive lifespan considerably. Currently, it constitutes the leading cause of infertility in the western world, affecting mainly those women who postpone their first pregnancy beyond the age of 30 years. The genetic aetiology of EM is largely unknown in the majority of cases. We(More)