Anna Marie Skalka

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Vertebrate genomes contain numerous copies of retroviral sequences, acquired over the course of evolution. Until recently they were thought to be the only type of RNA viruses to be so represented, because integration of a DNA copy of their genome is required for their replication. In this study, an extensive sequence comparison was conducted in which 5,666(More)
Retroviral integrase, one of only three enzymes encoded by the virus, catalyzes the essential step of inserting a DNA copy of the viral genome into the host during infection. Using the avian sarcoma virus integrase, we demonstrate that the enzyme functions as a tetramer. In presteady-state active site titrations, four integrase protomers were required for a(More)
The integration of viral DNA into the host cell chromosome is an essential feature of the retroviral life cycle. The integration reaction requires cis-acting sequences at the ends of linear viral DNA and a trans-acting product of the pol gene, the integration protein (IN). Previously, we demonstrated that avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) IN is able to(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) encodes a protease that is essential for viral replication and is a member of the aspartic protease family. The recently determined three-dimensional structure of the related protease from Rous sarcoma virus has been used to model the smaller HIV-1 dimer. The active site has been analyzed by comparison to the(More)
The composition and subcellular trafficking of subviral preintegration complexes are reported to vary among the different retroviruses. The process by which the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) preintegration complex gains access to target chromatin remains unknown. Here we report that ASV integrase (IN) expressed as a fusion to beta-galactosidase accumulates in(More)
It has been generally believed that oncoretroviruses are dependent on mitosis for efficient nuclear entry of viral DNA. We previously identified a nuclear localization signal in the integrase protein of an oncoretrovirus, avian sarcoma virus (ASV), suggesting an active import mechanism for the integrase-DNA complex (G. Kukolj, R. A. Katz, and A. M. Skalka,(More)
Six crystal structures of the core domain of integrase (IN) from avian sarcoma virus (ASV) and its active-site derivative containing an Asp64 --> Asn substitution have been solved at atomic resolution ranging 1.02-1.42 A. The high-quality data provide new structural information about the active site of the enzyme and clarify previous inconsistencies in the(More)
The avian retroviruses are unique among known RNA and DNA viruses in their extremely high frequencies of genetic recombination. We propose that these high frequencies can be explained by the facts that the closely associated RNA genomes of this diploid virus can be reverse-transcribed concurrently and that strand displacement is a fundamental property of(More)
BACKGROUND Integration of retroviral DNA into the host cell genome is an obligatory step in the virus life cycle. In previous reports we identified a sequence (amino acids 201-236) in the linker region between the catalytic core and C-terminal domains of the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) integrase protein that functions as a transferable nuclear localization(More)