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Retroviral DNA integration is catalyzed by the viral protein integrase. Here, it is shown that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a host cell protein, also participates in the reaction. DNA-PK-deficient murine scid cells infected with three different retroviruses showed a substantial reduction in retroviral DNA integration and died by apoptosis. Scid(More)
Vertebrate genomes contain numerous copies of retroviral sequences, acquired over the course of evolution. Until recently they were thought to be the only type of RNA viruses to be so represented, because integration of a DNA copy of their genome is required for their replication. In this study, an extensive sequence comparison was conducted in which 5,666(More)
BACKGROUND To further our understanding of the structure and function of HIV-1 integrase (IN) we developed and characterized a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against this protein. One of these antibodies, mAb33, which is specific for the C-terminal domain, was found to inhibit HIV-1 IN processing activity in vitro; a corresponding Fv(More)
The integration of viral DNA into the host cell chromosome is an essential feature of the retroviral life cycle. The integration reaction requires cis-acting sequences at the ends of linear viral DNA and a trans-acting product of the pol gene, the integration protein (IN). Previously, we demonstrated that avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) IN is able to(More)
Retroviral integrase, one of only three enzymes encoded by the virus, catalyzes the essential step of inserting a DNA copy of the viral genome into the host during infection. Using the avian sarcoma virus integrase, we demonstrate that the enzyme functions as a tetramer. In presteady-state active site titrations, four integrase protomers were required for a(More)
The composition and subcellular trafficking of subviral preintegration complexes are reported to vary among the different retroviruses. The process by which the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) preintegration complex gains access to target chromatin remains unknown. Here we report that ASV integrase (IN) expressed as a fusion to beta-galactosidase accumulates in(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) encodes a protease that is essential for viral replication and is a member of the aspartic protease family. The recently determined three-dimensional structure of the related protease from Rous sarcoma virus has been used to model the smaller HIV-1 dimer. The active site has been analyzed by comparison to the(More)
BACKGROUND Integration of retroviral DNA into the host cell genome is an obligatory step in the virus life cycle. In previous reports we identified a sequence (amino acids 201-236) in the linker region between the catalytic core and C-terminal domains of the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) integrase protein that functions as a transferable nuclear localization(More)
Retroviral integration depends on the interaction between intasomes, host chromatin and cellular targeting cofactors as LEDGF/p75 or BET proteins. Previous studies indicated that the retroviral integrase, by itself, may play a role in the local integration site selection within nucleosomal target DNA. We focused our study on this local association by(More)
The avian retroviruses are unique among known RNA and DNA viruses in their extremely high frequencies of genetic recombination. We propose that these high frequencies can be explained by the facts that the closely associated RNA genomes of this diploid virus can be reverse-transcribed concurrently and that strand displacement is a fundamental property of(More)