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The composition and subcellular trafficking of subviral preintegration complexes are reported to vary among the different retroviruses. The process by which the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) preintegration complex gains access to target chromatin remains unknown. Here we report that ASV integrase (IN) expressed as a fusion to beta-galactosidase accumulates in(More)
Integration of retroviral DNA into the host chromosome requires a virus-encoded integrase (IN). IN recognizes, cuts and then joins specific viral DNA sequences (LTR ends) to essentially random sites in host DNA. We have used computer-assisted protein alignments and mutagenesis in an attempt to localize these functions within the avian retroviral IN protein.(More)
Retroviral integrase (IN) functions to insert retroviral DNA into the host cell chromosome in a highly coordinated manner. IN catalyzes two biochemically separable reactions: processing of the viral DNA ends and joining of these ends to the host DNA. Previous studies suggested that these two reactions are chemically similar and are carried out by a single(More)
Integration of viral DNA into a chromosome of the infected host cell is required for efficient replication of a retroviral genome, and this reaction is mediated by the virus-encoded enzyme integrase (IN). As IN plays a pivotal role in establishing infection during the early stages of the retroviral life cycle, it is an attractive target for therapeutic(More)
The chromosomal features that influence retroviral integration site selection are not well understood. Here, we report the mapping of 226 avian sarcoma virus (ASV) integration sites in the human genome. The results show that the sites are distributed over all chromosomes, and no global bias for integration site selection was detected. However, RNA(More)
Retroviral integrases (INs) contain two known metal binding domains. The N-terminal domain includes a zinc finger motif and has been shown to bind Zn2+, whereas the central catalytic core domain includes a triad of acidic amino acids that bind Mn2+ or Mg2+, the metal cofactors required for enzymatic activity. The integration reaction occurs in two distinct(More)
The purified integration protein (IN) of avian myeloblastosis virus is shown to nick double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide substrates that mimic the ends of the linear form of viral DNA. In the presence of Mg2+, nicks are created 2 nucleotides from the 3' OH ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand. Similar cleavage is observed in the presence(More)
We previously described an avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) insertion mutation that causes a decrease in the ratio of unspliced to spliced RNA in vivo, resulting in a replication defect. Pseudorevertant viruses containing cis-acting suppressor mutations that restored the normal ratio were isolated. One class of the suppressor mutations consists of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication. Therefore, IN inhibitors are being sought for chemotherapy against AIDS. We had previously identified a series of salicylhydrazides as potent inhibitors of IN in vitro (Neamati, N.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 3202-3209.). Herein, we report(More)