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Trefoil family factor 2 (TFF2), also known as spasmolytic peptide, is a low-molecular-weight protein that is upregulated in gastric tissues infected with Helicobacter or having other inflammatory conditions, but a precise function is yet to be elucidated. The role of TFF2 in the development of gastritis, colitis, and inflammatory cytokine responses was(More)
Blockade of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses represents a new approach in the development of anti-inflammation therapeutics. In the present study, we have screened for TLR2-mediated inflammation inhibitors from small molecule compound libraries using a sensitive cell line stably expressing TLR2, CD14, and an(More)
Type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) is a human pathogen that has been widely developed for therapeutic uses, with only limited success to date. We report here the novel finding that human erythrocytes present Coxsackie virus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) providing an Ad5 sequestration mechanism that protects against systemic infection. Interestingly, erythrocytes from(More)
We investigated the roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the course of a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection and revealed the following: (i) studies of transfected cells and murine peritoneal macrophages demonstrated that TLR2 and MyD88 are essential for the initial pro-inflammatory cytokine(More)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a spectrum of disease, including herpes labialis, herpes keratitis, and herpes encephalitis, which can be lethal. Viral recognition by pattern recognition receptors plays a central role in cytokine production and in the generation of antiviral immunity. The relative contributions of different Toll-like receptors (TLRs)(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infection that is associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, from common cold-like symptoms to serious lower respiratory tract illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. RSV is the single most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract illness in children <1 year of age. Host innate(More)
The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane protein that is known to be a site of viral attachment and entry, but its physiologic functions are undefined. CAR expression is maximal in neonates and wanes rapidly after birth in organs such as heart, muscle, and brain, suggesting that CAR plays a role in the development of these(More)
Influenza virus infection of the respiratory tract is characterized by a neutrophil infiltrate accompanied by inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. We and others have reported that Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins are present on human neutrophils and that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) treatment enhances IL-8 (CXCL8)(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) play a critical role in the host defense against viruses. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection induces robust type I IFN production in its natural host, the mouse. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of type I IFNs in response to LCMV infection have not yet been clearly defined. In the present study, we(More)
Coxsackie B viruses (CVB) are enteroviruses that have been associated with a variety of human diseases, including myocarditis. In the present study, we found that MDA5 and its adaptor molecule MAVS are critical for type I interferon responses to CVB, since the absence of either MAVS or MDA5 leads to deficient type I interferon production and early mortality(More)