Anna-Maija Tolppanen

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OBJECTIVE Stroke increases the risk of dementias, including Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is unknown whether persons with AD have a higher risk of strokes. We investigated whether noninstitutionalized persons with AD were more likely to experience incident stroke than persons without AD and whether there are differences in the incidence of ischemic or(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence is lacking about outcomes associated with the cumulative use of anticholinergic and sedative drugs in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This retrospective cohort study investigated the relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic and sedative drugs and hospitalization and mortality in people with and without AD in(More)
OBJECTIVE Non-clinical psychotic experiences are common and distressing. It has been hypothesized that early life vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for psychosis-related outcomes, but it is not known if circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during childhood are associated with psychosis-related outcomes or whether the two(More)
BACKGROUND Databases of prescription drug purchases are now widely used in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Several methods have been used to generate drug use periods from drug purchases to investigate various aspects; e.g., to study associations between exposure and outcome. Typically, such methods have been fairly simplistic, with fixed assumptions of drug(More)
BACKGROUND Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition, but the effect may vary depending on personal characteristics. METHODS We investigated the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from mid- to late life, the risk of dementia, and the role of body mass index, sex, and APOE in the CAIDE study during 28-year follow-up.(More)
Memory diseases are the most important determinant of health care service use and quality of life among older individuals. Adverse effects of medication are common among older people, but this age group is underrepresented in clinical trials. Finnish statutory health care and prescription registers, together with personal identification numbers (PINs) and a(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes in midlife or late life increases the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), and type 1 diabetes has been associated with a higher risk of detrimental cognitive outcomes, although studies from older adults are lacking. We investigated whether individuals with AD were more likely to have a history of diabetes than matched controls from the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous cohort studies have shown that persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have a higher risk of hip fractures but recent data from large representative cohorts is scarce. METHODS We investigated the association between AD and prevalent and incident hip fractures in an exposure-matched cohort study conducted in Finland 2002-2009 (the(More)
BACKGROUND Higher total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been associated with better cognitive function mainly in cross-sectional studies in adults. It is unknown if the associations of different forms of 25(OH)D (25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2)) are similar. METHODS Prospective cohort study (n=3171) with serum 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2)(More)
BACKGROUND   Depression in adolescence is common and early onset predicts worse outcome in adulthood. Studies in adults have suggested a link between higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and lower risk of depression. OBJECTIVES   To investigate (a) the association between serum 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) concentrations and depressive(More)